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Становление Османской империи

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Pietro Bizarri. Persicarum rerum historia. 1583

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi. Historia della guerra fra Turchi et Persiani, descritta in quattro libri. 1587

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi. Historia della guerra fra Turchi et Persiani di G. T. Minadoi. 1588

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi. Persische Historia, Das ist: Warhaffte und Aussf ü hrliche Beschreibung von dem alangwirigien und erschrockligen Krieg, der Turcken, wider die Perseier. 1592

Pietro Bizarri. Rerum Persicarum Historia, initia gentis, mores, institute, resque gestas ad haec usque tempora complectens. 1601

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi. The history of the vvarres betvveene the Turkes and the Persians. 1595 Еще.

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi. Historia de la guerra entre turcos y persianos de Juan Tomas Minadoy. 1588

 

Переиздание 2019 года - Giovanni-Tommaso Minadoi. The War between the Turks and the Persians: conflict and religion in the Safavid and Ottoman worlds. Translated by Abraham Hartwell.

 

Цитата

Surely the most detailed account of the sixteenth-century Ottoman–Safavid military encounter is the monographic work of Giovanni Tommaso (Thomaso) Minadoi. Minadoi was a renowned Italian physician who in the 1570s spent some seven years in Aleppo and Istanbul serving the consuls of Venice and who in this period collected a great deal of material on what would be the longest of the conflicts between Muslim powers: the war that broke out in 1578 and that would continue until 1590, when Shah ‘Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) decided to accept the humiliating terms of a peace proposal offered to him by his opponent, Sultan Murad III (r. 1574–95).

...

Giovanni Tommaso Minadoi graduated from the University of Padua in 1574. Two years later, he went to Syria as resident physician to the Venetian legation, to serve Teodoro Balbi (1542–1619), the newly appointed consul to Aleppo (served 1578–81).

...

Minadoi remained in Ottoman territory, mostly in Aleppo, with various stays in Istanbul, for a full decade. In this period he went back to Italy only once. Upon his return to the Levant, he was asked to enter the service of Balbi’s successor, Giovanni Michele (Michiel) (served c. 1582–4). Following his definitive return to Italy in 1586, he became medico condotto (i.e. community physician) in the town of Udine, the capital of Friuli, located some hundred kilometres northeast of Venice. 

Цитата

To most historians, Minadoi is best known as the author of a substantial work on the Ottoman–Safavid conflict that had broken out while he resided in Ottoman territory. Minadoi published the result of his research on this conflict shortly after his definitive return to Italy, having spent a brief two months preparing the manuscript. In 1587 the first edition, consisting of four ‘books’ or chapters, appeared under the title Historia della guerra fra Turchi et Persiani, descritta in quattro libri in Venice published by Andrea Muschio and Barezzo Barezzi, and in Rome published by I. Tornerio and B. Donangeli. In spite of the hasty final preparation, the book must have been years in the making, since as early as 1583 the Italian Pietro Bizarri appended part of a manuscript version of the work to his own Persicarum rerum historia, the first comprehensive history of Persia to appear in Europe. Minadoi, now having access to proper libraries, kept adding material to his research, as a result of which a new, expanded version of his book saw the light of day in 1588. Titled Historia della guerra fra Turchi et Persiani di G. T. Minadoi … dall’istesso riformata, e aggiuntivi i successi dell’anno 1586, this second edition was published in Venice by Andrea Muschio and Barezzo Barezzi, and in Turin by Giovanni Battista Bevilacqua. 

Цитата

Minadoi’s work was quickly translated into various languages.

Цитата

Minadoi’s account has to be read in the context of the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and Europe, and by extension between Islam and Christendom. The author makes it clear that the research he conducted for his work did not just receive encouragement but had actual material support from the Venetian authorities. In collecting the information that he used for his account, he stood in a century-old Venetian tradition of gathering intelligence about the Ottomans and their enemies, especially those who might become allies with the Christian nations in a common anti-Turkish front. Like Balbi and Michele, as well as the well-known (Flemish) Austrian ambassador Oghir Ghiselin de Busbecq, Minadoi never visited Persia itself. This tradition goes back at least as far as the days of Uzun Hasan (r. 1453–78), the ruler of the west-Persian Aq-Qoyunlu (White Sheep) dynasty, who in the mid-fifteenth century had requested assistance from the Venetians in his own struggle against the Turks. The Aq-Qoyunlu were defeated by the Ottomans in 1473 and faded soon after Uzun Hasan’s death five years later. Less than a quarter of a century later, the rise to political power of a new dynasty – the Safavids – rekindled hopes that relief from the Turkish scourge might finally be at hand. The Diarii of the panoptic Venetian annalist Marin Sanudo and the account of Giovanni Rota, a physician stationed in Aleppo, which came out in 1508 in the form of a letter to the doge, portray the phenomenal rise of Shah Esma‘il Safavi in 1501 as the parousia of a messianic saviour.

Цитата

For a more sympathetic view of the Ottomans, one has to look for countries that were not directly at war with them or that competed with the Hispano-Portuguese Empire, such as France and England. Whereas Minadoi had dedicated his work to Pope Sixtus V (r. 1585–90), Hartwell in turn dedicated his translation to the Archbishop of Canterbury. England at this point occupied a peculiar position in this struggle. Not directly involved, it was relatively favourably inclined to the Ottomans, seeking their support, if only because its own arch-enemy, Spain, was a sworn enemy of the Turks. The English Levant Company understandably also had considerable interest in maintaining good relations with Istanbul. This may have been the reason why Hartwell cryptically refers to the secrecy he chose to keep with regard to some of the reasons why he had decided to undertake the translation of Minadoi’s work.

Minadoi, meanwhile, shows some sympathy for the Safavids – whom various European nations had continued to court as potential allies against the bellicose Ottomans. Indeed, following a venerable Western tradition, he views Persians as a sophisticated and cultured people, as opposed to the Turks, whose reputation was that of primitive and predatory brutes.

Цитата

Yet Minadoi’s work is no ode to the Persians. Unlike Hartwell, who had a mostly negative view of Persia, Minadoi was ambivalent about the Safavid realm. If in many passages in his work he seems to tilt towards Persia, this is less from a love for the Safavid state than from fear of the greater evil: the Turks. At the same time, he voices the stereotypical views of Persia and Persians expressed by many before and after him, conflating, in the antiquarian fashion current at the time, the ancient inhabitants of the country and the modern ones, calling the Persians ‘great deceivers, full of craftie Stratagemes, unconstant, and breakers of their word’. Yet, referring to a perceived anarchic disposition, he also claimed that they were ‘never content with any mans governement’. Alluding to a presumed creative spirit, he further insisted that they were ‘lovers of novelties’ (p. 74). Yet on balance, not yet seduced by the wonders of Isfahan as fashioned and embellished by Shah ‘Abbas I a generation later, and not having set foot in Persia and thus unable to report on the cultural sophistication and hospitality of its people from first-hand experience, Minadoi classified the Persians as barbarians, just like the Turks.

Цитата

Superimposing the Catholic–Protestant rivalry onto the Sunni–Shi‘i conflict that suffused the enmity between the Ottomans and the Safavids, Minadoi ultimately argued that they were both believers in the same prophet, that the Persians were just as inveterately inimical to Christianity as the Turks. In his account, the conflict between these two states thus becomes part of a providential plan designed to weaken the major Muslim powers and, therefore, Islam. In keeping with a sentiment that would long persist, the war, in his words, although ‘long and bloudie’, was also ‘very commodious and of great opportunitie to the Christian Common-wealth’. Minadoi hoped that his book would ‘animate Christian princes to take up arms against barbarians under whose rule famous and once powerful nations are reduced’. He thus advocated a strategy that today we would call ‘dual containment’.

Цитата

What is perhaps most striking about Minadoi’s work is its break with past custom. Histories of Persia written by Europeans, before and after him, tended to make connections between Persians in the present with their forebears in antiquity in ways that Persians themselves came to do only in the late nineteenth century and under the influence of European practice. His work is pragmatic in character and purpose: rather than engaging in historical digressions about the presumed origins of the Persians and the Turks, Minadoi keeps the war he describes in focus, providing a wealth of detail about its origins, its landmark events, battles and skirmishes. He also pays much attention to the terrain, the topography and especially place names, seeking to give their accurate rendering. In this, he represented a new trend among scholars, who relied less on ancient nomenclature than their forebears in their attempt to find accurate current names for topographical places. In the process, Minadoi also provides a great deal of information about other aspects of the Safavid polity, much of it remarkably accurate, given his lack of direct access to the country. He thus touches on the formidable Pari Khan Khanom, Shah Tahmasb’s daughter, her role in the successive enthronement of her two brothers, Isma‘il II in 1576 and Mohammad Khodabanda two years later, and how she was sidelined and killed by the Qezelbash shortly thereafter. Further, he was the first European to give a detailed and informed overview of the Sunni–Shi‘i divide in Islam.

Minadoi’s narrative was not above controversy. He made the mistake of identifying Tabriz with Ecbatana, the capital of the Medes, most likely present-day Hamadan, and got into a dispute with Paulo Giovio, a contemporary Italian historian who had written on the Turks, concerning Giovio’s argument that Tabriz was to be equated with ancient Terva (Yerevan in Armenian) – hence the letter to Mario Corrado.

Цитата

What is especially important for the modern reader is that neither Minadoi’s anti-Turkish bias nor his qualified sympathy for the Persians stands in the way of his search for the ‘truth’. He goes to great lengths emphasizing that he has made great efforts to find the truth behind the story he is telling. This is a trope, to be sure, but in Minadoi’s case, it is more than that: as he himself states, he interviewed many people and double- and triple-checked facts in the face of many inconsistencies with regard to place names. In his preface, Minadoi insists that he has done everything possible to collect and collate information from various sources, most notably by consulting eyewitnesses, ‘men of great authority who were present for the most part at these actions’ (author’s epistle to the reader). He mentions how his medical knowledge has helped him gather his information. In this he was heir to another tradition with a long pedigree: in Islamic lands, Westerners were (until quite recently) often automatically credited with medical knowledge, and their (presumed) knowledge of illnesses and curative skills literally opened doors for European physicians, even to the inner sanctum of the homes of the elite. Their access to the royal palace was one of the reasons why Jewish doctors serving the bailo in Constantinople were highly prized by the Venetians.

Цитата

Aleppo, the terminus for a branch of the silk trade originating in Persia, was an ideal venue to collect information on the Safavid state. Minadoi in particular invokes as informants the two successive Venetian consuls to Aleppo under whom he served, Teodoro Balbi and Giovanni Michele, calling them ‘two most noble, prudent and valorouse subiectes of the State of Venice’, and who ‘most magnificently without sparing of any costes did favour me herein’ (author’s epistle to the reader). Balbi in turn benefited from Minadoi’s knowledge. Upon his return to Venice in 1582, Balbi gave testimony on Persia to the Venetian Senate, and the similarities between his text and that of Minadoi makes it likely that the latter actually wrote Balbi’s report to the Senate. Minadoi also mentions a Venetian named Cristoforo de Boni, who served as interpreter to these diplomats.


Most valuable for the information Minadoi offers on the Safavids, especially on their administrative system, must have been his other, ‘native’, informants. One was the renegade Scipione, the son of a nobleman from Genoa who had fought as a corsair until he was captured by the Ottomans, at which point he had converted to Islam. Upon his release, now known as Sinan Pasha, he had made a career for himself in the Ottoman army, to the point of assuming the function of commander-in-chief in the war against the Safavids. Eventually, suspected of plotting against the sultan, he had been dismissed and sent into exile. Minadoi mentions how he had treated him, curing him of a ‘certain illness’, most likely venereal disease. Equally important as a source of information was an official named Maqsud Khan, who came to the Ottoman Empire as an envoy from Shah Mohammad Khodabanda seeking peace, and who upon his return was made governor of Tabriz. He next had a falling-out with the shah, causing him to take refuge with the Ottomans, to be appointed governor of Aleppo. Minadoi specifically notes how he met with Maqsud Khan’s son after the latter’s father had been made governor of Aleppo.

Minadoi’s work, in its original version as well as its various translations, would have considerable influence on the image of Persia, its political system and its confrontation with the Ottomans in seventeenth-century Europe. The best illustration of such influence is Oruch Beg, better known as Don Juan of Persia, the secretary of an embassy sent to Spain by Shah ‘Abbas I who, having arrived in Valladolid in 1601, converted to Christianity and chose to remain in Spain. He, or rather his Spanish mentor and translator, Alfonso Remón, followed Minadoi’s account of events and made extensive use of his work. Another example is the English historian Richard Knolles ( c. 1545–1610), who copied the parts of Minadoi’s work that deal with the Sunni–Shi‘i schism verbatim for his own acclaimed work, Generall Historie of the Turkes (1603–4). The information contained in Knolles’s book, the first major work in English on the Ottoman Empire, was further publicized by Paul Rycaut’s highly influential The Present State of the Ottoman Empire (1665), which rivalled Knolles’s account as the standard work on the Ottomans in Europe well into the eighteenth century. The information Minadoi provided shows up as well in the works of John Cartwright and Samuel Purchas, two authors who reached a mass audience in seventeenth-century Europe by being included in the exceedingly popular Hakluyt series. Some of the various anonymous manuscripts on the Persian-Turkish wars that appeared at the turn of the seventeenth century are undoubtedly based in part on his work as well. The information offered by Minadoi thus long reverberated, helping to shape and solidify opinions about Persia and its inhabitants, separately and in relation with the Ottomans, that would have enormous staying power.

Синан-паша - тут и тут.

Описаний оружия там небогато, но есть.

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По английскому репринту 2019 года.

Турецкое войско, выступившее против "персов" в 1577-м.

Цитата

Through these and other lyke iniuries theyr myndes were greatly incensed with anger, and theyr wrathfull hartes filled with a most ardent desyre of reuenge: and whiles with shame enough they romed vp and downe dayly, sharpening their hatred as it were agaynst a whetstone, in the yeare 1577. the abouenamed Mustaffa was elected Generall of the Turkish Campe, prouision was made ready for him, and authority giuen him to prepare whatsoeuer was needefull. So messages were sent, and commandement giuen, ouer all the countreyes heareafter named, that all the Bassaes, Sangiacchi, Agaes, Spahini, Gianissaries, and souldiers of all sortes, that were bound by their perpetuall annuitees to go to warre, should take their iourney in the beginning of the spring to the Citty of Erzirum, (which if it be any of the old citties, it is very likely to be Simbra mentioned by Ptolomee) there to bee ready for the charge that should be enioyned them by their new Generall: who hauing his dispatch from Constantinople, & passing to Chalcedon (which Herodotus in respect of the founders errour calleth Blynde and now is named Scutari,) through the countryes of Amasia and of Siuas, (the one being the natiue soyle of Strabo, and the other in old tyme called Sebastopolis), hee arriued in Erzirum in the very beginning of Sommer, and there stayed till such tyme as all his people, corne, artillery and other necessarye prouision were gathered together, and at last departed for Struan, hauing first taken an vniuersall and diligent surueigh of all his Army: whereby distinguishing the sound & strong from the sicke & feeble, the armed from the vnarmed, & the couragious from the cowards, weighing in equall ballance his owne forces, hee might assuredly know what to looke for at their handes.

Цитата

Then he deuided his troupes: and first in order were mustred the people of Mesopotamia, to the nomber of xij. thousand, (their Captayne being well checked by the Generall for bringing so few this yeare) all of them for the most parte Archers, not of any great courage, and accustomed to the vse of the Scimitarre. The second were the Assyrians and Babilonians, watered with Euphrates & Tigris, coming from the very confines of Balsara, (in old tyme called Teredon,) in nomber no more then xiiij. thousand horsemen, yet all armed with sword and darte, after the manner of their neighbours the Mesopotamians. The third in order were the Sorians, a people more riche in apparell then stout in armour, & rather alluring their enemies with the goodly shew of their spoiles then terrible to them, being ij. thousand in nomber, all of them being very cunning to vault and turne themselues round about in fighting. Then were mustred the men of Siuas, of Amasia, of Maras, of Bursia, of Angori, and other places comprehended vnder the name of Natolia, (where in tymes past were the Magnesians, the Bithynians, the Phrygians, those of Pontus & Lydia,) to the nomber of x. thousand, hardy people and well armed, but for the most part archers on horsbacke. There came next after them those of Iury, and Palestina, vpon swift coursers, continuall darters & archers, more ready for flight and spoyle, then for fight and foyle, poore in apparrel and vertue, to the nomber of one thousande. The Cilicians succeeded them, now inhabiting Caramania, to the nomber of iiij. thousand, armed with Scimitarre, battell axe, and bow, a harde and rough nation, giuen to spoyle and robbery. Then followed the glory and hope of all the Campe, the people of Grecia, souldiers full of franke courage, armed with arcubush and sworde, mounted vpon good and valiant horses to the nomber of 10000. And after them the familiar & faithfull garde of the Generall, iij. thousand Gianissaries of Constantinople with arcubush on the shoulder and sword by the syde. Vnder the standard of Beyran Bassa, were lykewise mustred the people of the Citty and iurisdiction of Erzirum leuied out of those places, where in tymes past the Cappadoces bordering vpon the Armenians did inhabite, to the nomber of iiij. thousand: souldiers accustomed to braules and battelles, and first in the field to meete their enemies, armed with sword and arcubush, dartes or Indian Canes, and yet all of them on horsebacke. Euery troupe had their seuerall Captaynes, who notwithstanding were changed at the Generalles pleasure: whose names seruing to no purpose we will quite leaue out, the rather to auoyde the tediousnes of the reader, being not acquaynted with barbarous tearmes. 

Цитата

These were then the squadrons of such souldiers as were stipendiaries to the Turkish king, to the nomber of whom those which went as voluntarie aduenturers were little inferior, yet better armed peraduenture and more hardy to fight: so that there were found in this surueigh about a hundred and ten thousand horsemen

Цитата

Damasco, which in old tyme carried the name and pryce for matters of warre, kept backe their band of Gianissaries being Arcubusiers, to take their ease at home vnder the standerds of their owne captaines. Mustaffa brought with 500. peeces of small Artillary with Mustaffa. him fiue hundred peeces of small Shotte, aswell for safety of his army, as also for seruice in defending such fortresses and castelles, as he should be enforced to erect in the new-conquered countries. 

 

"Персы".

Цитата

And therefore with those fewe, which for the loue of iustice were met together in those partes, being not aboue twenty thousande, Tocomac was dispatched about his busines, hoping that the enemyes army (wherein he heard say the king in person was not) might be such, as with these his smal forces it were not impossible for him to oppresse them in some narrow straites, where the multitude commonly vseth rather to be: in confusion & perplexity, then ready and able to helpe one another. These xx. thousand were all horsemen, armed with Scimitarre and bow with some Arcubuses among and (which is wont to stand this nation in great steed) they were furnished with very syne and well tempeted Armour, but specially couragious they were and resolute, and made more hardy by the vertue and valour of their Captayne. And therefore with all their prouision necessary for victuall and fight, keeping the way of Tauris and Genge, they came to the turning of Chars, where they were aduertysed that their enemyes army was passed. 

Цитата

But as concerning the state of their warres and warfare, it cannot bee precysely and particularly descrybed, neither in respect of their forces, nor of their weapons, nor of the manner of their fight: and yet will wee set downe that little which we know for certaine. The souldiers of this kingdome would in truth be very many and terrible, if al those places, which we haue comprised within the co ̄ passe therof, as they are accompted, so they were indeed obedient to this crowne, and if also all those fables could be verified of it, that are dyuersly reported by dyuers wryters, of so many horsemen & so many footemen. But for somuch as not onely the Tributaries, but also the very naturall subiects doo not send in their ordinary and due aydes and succours, hereupon it springeth that in all their occasions their forces prooue so weake, and their Armies of a very small nomber.

Цитата

Amet-Chan, who hath a long time been Lord of Gheilan. This man, although he were of hability to haue yeelded singular aide to this crowne, (it being the generall opinion of all men, that he could gather together xx. thousand horse)

Цитата

The like treacherie shewed Rustan Mirize, the king of Candahar, and sonne to a brother of king Tamas, who neither for neerenesse of bloud, nor for common honour, nor for the estimation and reputation of his owne superstition, could euer be wrought to pitty the calamities of Persian: and yet the kingdome of Candahar was very well hable to gather about xxv. thousand horse

Цитата

Like vnto these was, and still is Emir-Miran the Lord of Iest, a hard man, and very obstinate in coueteousnesse, who doth not onely not send any voluntarie aide, but also refuseth to pay those tributes which by couenant & composition he is bound to send: And yet is he able to yeeld foure or fiue thousand horse of great valour in warre

Фарс? Далее - там еще владения упомянуты, но точных числе войска не указано. Хузестан, "нация турокманов".

Цитата

The Lord of Lar also, called Ebrain-Chan, famous for his mightinesse, although in times past hee hath alwayes helped the common forces with his priuate succours, yet at this day he vtterly denieth both the one and the other, and threateneth rather to suppresse all Estates, then to aduaunce and encrease any that belong to this crowne. 


But aboue al the rest, me thinketh that Abas Mirize this kinges sonne is most impious and wicked, who not onely would neuer fauour his fathers enterprises against the cruell enimies of the common libertie, but also hath sought by all meanes possible to driue both his brethren and his father out of the State, and to enter himselfe into the succession and gouernement of this diuided and troubled kingdome. So that vnder his Iurisdiction there are idlely fed eighteene thousand horse, which would prooue very stout and strong in warre, if they wanted not discipline. 

Цитата

Out of Hispahan, and the territorie thereof, (to reckon their Stipendiaries to the vttermost) they leauie eight thousand souldiers on horseback: out of Bargo, two thousand: out of Cassan, foure thousand: out of Seua, one thousand: out of Sultania, one thousand: out of Casbin, twelue thousand: out of Ardouil, one thousand: out of Siras eight thousand: out of Tauris foure thousand: out of Cum and Cuohiue-Tauris two thousand: out of Genge & the rest of Georgia, foure thousand. Besides these they may hire others, when their occasions do so require, and they haue alwaies volutary souldiers, & that in som good nomber so that the greatest Armie that they can possibly gather, will hardly amount to threescore thousand horse: (alwayes prouided that euery cittie aforenamed do send in their Stipendiarie Souldiers according to their duety.) Whereas if all the other Capitaines, that are noted aboue to be obstinate and rebellious, would agree and concurre in one vnitie, they might make an hoast of an hundred & thirty or an hundred and forty thousand persons or thereaboutes.

Цитата

Their Souldiers are armed for the most parte with Scimitarre, Launce, and Darte, but specially, the Scimitarre is most familiar vnto them, and all the Persians do make a singular profession and vse of it: although there want not among them some that can handle the Arcubuse also, the exercise whereof hath of late yeares growen more familiar and vsuall, then it was in the time of Ismahel, and in the first yeares of the raigne of king Tamas. For their owne defence they are armed with good Corselets, and strong helmets, many of them able to keepe out an Arcubuseshot, much more to daunt the force of a Darte: Some of their horses also are armed with very good Armour, most finely and soundly tempered. And these their horses are of a singular vertue, equall with those of the old time, which (as Strabo writeth) were accustomed to be fed and brought vp in Armenia for their kings vse. Swift in course, fierce in battell, long breathed and very docible. When they are vns […]dled, gentle and milde, but when they are armed, warlike, hardie, and manageable, euen at the pleasure of the Ryder: so that it is no meruaile, if one of them haue bene sold for a thousand or a thousand & three hundred *Duckates (Cocchini).


Those that follow & attend the exercises of warre are for the most part men of noble me […], and therevpon it cometh, that they are more hardy and valiant to foyle then to flie. And beeing compared with the Turkish people, (who for the most part are very rascalles, of vile race, ready to fly and to rauine) they are by good right very worthie to be highly esteemed. 

Цитата

The people of Persia are afrayde of Artillery beyond measure, and yet sometimes they haue not beene afraide with suddaine assaultes to assaile their enimies trenches, & lodginges in their Campes. And although they be so timorous and fearefull of that Engine, and know of what moment it is in a battell: yet haue they not hetherto receiued the vse thereof, being rather obstinate in their blind ambitious conceite, that it is a sinne and shame to exercise so cruell a weapon against mankinde, then ignorant how to make it, or destitute of matter to cast it

Цитата

The manner of ordering their battell is after the fashion of a horne or of the Moone, as a man may call it, and in open battell their Squadrons are ordered on this sort. In the right horne or wing, by auncient custome were placed those troupes that were guyded by the captaynes of Istigelu, which is now called the Traytors lyne, by reason of Zalchan and the rest, that were so ready & resolute in the conspiracy, which was made in the fauour of Aidere, whereof we haue already written in this history. In the left cornet or wing were placed the people that were led by the captaines Zambeluzes, who vaunt of their auncient discent from Damasco, and from the Tacaluzes, a nation neuer greatly esteemed for any valour or knowledge that they had in warfare. In the body of the battel was appointed the kings guard, who was alwaies accustomed to be present at warre with his Armies, although this king partly by reason of the infirmity of his eies, and partly for the dissentions in his kingdome durst not venture to goe in person, but in his steed sent Prince Amze, a valorous & good warrier. In the middest of the battell also, about the King, went the people of Ausares, which are pressed out of Persia, all of them accounted very warrelike, and more valiant then all the rest. Neyther would it bee greatly amisse to thinke that from hence were those troupes fetched in tymes past, which Xerxes was wont to terme by that proude tytle Immortall, the immortall souldiers. The Rere-ward was kept by those that descended from Calirchan, which were neuer as yet depryued of that honour, for the good desertes that Calirchan shewed to Ismahel, when he strained himselfe, to passe with a mighty Army euen into Cafe, to performe the Regall Ceremonies at his Coronation, and yet for all that neuer stirred the ordinary guarde of Casbin. The people of Caribdiler and Chiaperis made-vp the Vaunt-Guarde, accompted also to be men of good sort and very warlike, because they haue alwaies shewed themselues ready in any occasions or troubles of warre, and performed their partes very valiantly. And this was the manner of ordering their battelles in late tymes. 

 

Друзы.

Цитата

In battaile they vse especially the Arcubuse and the Scimitarre: and yet some of them at this daie doo serue with Launces and Dartes. They are apparrelled like the Easterne people, with a Turbante on their heade: and breeches they neuer weare, but in steede thereof they couer those partes with their Coate, which reacheth downe to their knees in length, by buttening it vppe before.

 

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Что характерно - в общем описании турецких войск щиты не упоминаются, зато регулярно всплывают при описаниях парадов и награждений дорогим оружием

Цитата

And so in exchange of the presentes which he brought him, hee apparelled him in cloth of gold, honored him with a battell-axe and target, wrought with gold & ammell: & neuer permitted him to go from his pauiglion without a traine of his slaues. 

...

who presently came to yeeld himselfe as vassall to the Turkes, and being entertained with his accustomed pompe, and rewarded with apparrell, sword, battell-Axe & Target all guilt, he tooke his leaue and returned to his old withdrawing places of the mountaine.

...

The king sent by two of his Capigi (or Gentlemen Hushers) to Hassan, a battle-axe al gilt, and setful of iewels, a Target of gold and pearle, and a garment of cloth of gold, in rewarde of his noble enterprises atchieued, commending him eat lie for his vertue and valour: and with great delight did he read-ouer all that Mustaffa had written vnto him, giuing order withall, that Aliculi should be kept, where hee was, in diligent and safe custodie. 

...

honored by Mahamet with Cloath of Golde, and Sworde and Target all guilte

Странно.

 

Еще описание - вообще там их еще довольно много.

Цитата

For first he set forward fiue hundred peeces of final artiliery, placing the in good order after the manner of a large trench, & after this shot, three rows of Ianizzaries, & behind them he tooke vp his own place. Then followed al the army which he parted into two great & wide wings, which after the fashion of a moone copassed about a great deale of ground entermingling also heere and there some footemen, with his horsemen, & some harcubuses among his darts & lances. Behind al the armie were placed al the cariages which were requisit for the vrgent necessity of vittaile, and behind the cariages went the Arrie rewarde conducted by two Bassaes with viii. thousandmen. The army being thus ordered and disposed, hee sent out some fewe Turkes, to shewe themselues vpon the top of certaine hilles, and as though they had bin enemies, that came to seize vpon his army, he presently caused al his artillery to be discharged, and commaunded euery man to skirmish, & to bestir himselfe, after the same manner and altogether with the same kinde of behauiour, as if their enemie were present before them. And so the tempest of the Harguebuzes being ouer passed, the launces or Indian canes discharged, & the exceeding thicke storme of arrowes ceased, there did shine round about on all sides, such a brightnes of swords, helmets, and brest-plates, yeelding forth great lightnings & as it were fierie beames, that it enkindled the mindes of them all to battel: and then againe the drums & trumpets made such a noise, the Ensignes, creasts, liueries, and deuises were so turned and tossed & the aire so replenished with seuerall colours of blewe and yellowe, & to be briefe there was such a medly of al things, as though it had been the turmoile of a very battel indeed. After a while he caused the retrait to bee sounded, and then setting all his army in order againe, there was such another like shewe commaunded the second time, and after that the third also: which indeede was performed rather with the scorne and derision of all his souldiers, who thought it to be as it were but children play, then that any commendation did indeed arise thereby to ambitious Sinan. 

 

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По итальянскому изданию 1587 года.

Сбор турецкого и персидского войск в 1577-м году.

Вооружение друзов.

Части с описание персидского государства нет. В английском репринте 2019 года это страница 41. Далее сразу идет часть, соответствующая странице 54. То есть - описание войны без дополнительных врезок и пояснений. 

Разбивка на главы отличается от английского перевода.

 

По итальянскому изданию 1588 года.

Сбор войска турок и персов в 1577-м году.

Часть с описание персидского государства (армия).  Друзов искать лень - все равно потом еще доспехи искать и прочее. 

Вот именно с этого варианта на английский и переводили - искать нужные части легко настолько, насколько это вообще возможно.

 

Испанское издание 1588 года. 

Сбор турецкого и персидского войска в 1577-м.

Части с описание персидского государства нет - насколько понимаю перевод был сделан с первой итальянской редакции, 1587 года.

 

Немецкое издание 1592 года. Опять это преступление перед человечеством - готика с вычучундрами...

Сбор турецкого и персидского войска в 1577-м.

Военное описание персидского государства.

Перевод по итальянской редакции 1588-го года, главы те же - но подписи к абзацам выброшены, поэтому ориентироваться не особо удобно. Хорошо хоть имена и географические названия в тексте выделены.

 

 

В Persicarum rerum historia 1601 года сбор войск в 1577-м. Там же - латинский перевод работы Минадои (редакция 1588 года) - раз, два. И латинский перевод работы Иосафата Барбаро (!). Еще что-то занятное.

Описание военного дела в издании 1601 года.

1601.thumb.png.4d24ce3dd71433912bf256d54

Описание военного дела в издании 1583 года.

1583.png.461bac6e1a2fd6866b1d7b7a3d07485

Эти описания как-то связаны с работой Минадои (там не только они). И, что характерно, есть именно что обширное описание Персии, чего в первой редакции собственного издания Минадои и не было. Поди пойми - откуда он ее взял и когда именно подготовил...

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Латинский перевод Иосафата Барбаро.

Barbaro_latinskiy.png.01acde634691cb0cb3

Цитата

Tentoria 6000. erant. Cameli 30000. Muli ad onera ferenda 5000. Equi ad onera ferenda 5000. Asini 2000. Equi bellatores 20000. Inter hos 2000. circiter laminis ferreis auro atque argento pictis, tecti erant. Alii cooperti erant corio, alii serico, eo artificio s in hunc vsum parato, vt sagittae penetrare nequirent. Eodem modo sessores muniti s tecti erant.

 

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Латинский перевод Барбаро 1601 года.

Barbaro_latinskiy.png.815af59f4c7d6e6517

Цитата

Tentoria 6000. erant. Cameli 30000. Muli ad onera ferenda 5000. Equi ad onera ferenda 5000. Asini 2000. Equi bellatores 20000. Inter hos 2000. circiter laminis ferreis auro atque argento pictis, tecti erant. Alii cooperti erant corio, alii serico, eo artificio s in hunc vsum parato, vt sagittae penetrare nequirent. Eodem modo sessores muniti s tecti erant.

 

Итальянский текст 1540 года.