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Bocoum Hamady. The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa. New light on its antiquity: West and Central Africa

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Bocoum Hamady. The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa. New light on its antiquity: West and Central Africa


The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa. New light on its antiquity: West and Central Africa. Edited by Hamady Bocoum. - Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 2004.

ISBN 92-3-103807-9

Contents

Foreword 5

Table of illustrations 9

List of contributors 17

Preface 19

Introduction, Hamady Bocoum 21

Part One. Twenty-five Centuries of Ironworking in Nigeria. Nigerian Contribution to the First Session of the International Scientific Committee on the ‘Iron Roads in Africa’ Project (Abuja, 23–27 February 1995)

Introductory Note 31

The Beginnings of Iron Metallurgy in West Africa, J. F. Jemkur 33

Twenty-five Centuries of Bloomery Iron Smelting in Nigeria, E. E. Okafor 43

The Impact of Iron in Yorubaland, I. A. Akinjogbin 55

Part Two. Meeting on African Iron Metallurgy (UNESCO, 12 November 1999)

The Process Chain in Iron and Steelmaking: Archaeological Materials and Procedures. The Contribution of Metallographical Studies, P. Fluzin 65

Iron Metallurgy in Africa: A Heritage and a Resource for Development, H. Bocoum 97

Iron Metallurgy Datings from Termit (Niger): Their Reliability and Significance, G. Quéchon 109

Chronometric and Chronological Data on Metallurgy at Termit: Graphs for the Study of the Ancient Iron Ages, A. Person, G. Quéchon 119

Central Africa: Knowing Iron, P. de Maret 127

Status of Iron Age Archaeology in Southern Cameroon, J.-M. Essomba 135

Iron Roads in Africa: A Contribution from Nigeria, D. A. Aremu 149

On the Threshold of Intensive Metallurgy: The Choice of Slow Combustion in the Niger River Bend (Burkina Faso and Mali), B. Martinelli 165

Assessment of the Dating of Ancient Relics of Ironworking in Africa: Main Lessons, L.-M. Maes-Diop 189

General Bibliography 195

Annexes

• International Consultative Meeting of Specialists (Maputo, 10–13 December 1991) – Excerpts from the Report 221

• Members of the International Scientific Committee on the Iron Roads in Africa Project 227

Index

• Specialists 231

• Sites 235

Table of illustrations

Figures

Figure 1. The iron and steel process and its historical evolution 67

Figure 2. The process chain in ironmaking: refining 72

Figure 3. Diagram of carbon-14 B.P. measurements at Termit-Egaro. Histogram in fifty-year classes of radiocarbon dates B.P. not gauged according to the confidence interval of measurements 120

Figure 4. Comparative histogram of carbon-14 ages 121

Figure 5. Chronology of the end of the Neolithic era and the early stages of metallurgy at Termit 123

Figure 6. Principal sites studied by the author in the region 138

Figure 7. Archaeological prospection in Zoétélé district: principal sites identified by the author (July–August 1990) 143

Figure 8. Localities of the principal iron-smelting sites in the states of Nigeria 151

Figure 9. Yatenga and the extent of Mossi metallurgy 167

Figure 10. Farmer-metalworkers and blacksmiths in Yatenga and the Seno plain 171

Figure 11. Principal types of induction furnaces in the Niger Bend 173

Figure 12. Yatenga, Kâyn: reduction compared 70/100h. Temperature curves 182

Figure 13. African iron metallurgy from the third millennium to the fifth century B.C.: known sites 191

Plates and photographs

Plate I. Direct reduction and its products 69

Photo 1. Ethnoarchaeological mission: contemporary small open furnace in Burkina Faso, Toungaré site, Bulkiemdé province, 199410 Table of illustrations

Photo 2. Experimental reconstitution: type-2 model small open furnace, Clérimois (Yonne), Archéodrome de Beaune, 1996 – C. Dunikowski, S. Cabboï, P. Fluzin and A. Ploquin

Photo 3. Ethnoarchaeological reconstitution: Agorregi forge, Basque Country (Spain), 1999 – M. Urteaga, P. and S. Crew, P. Fluzin, R. Herbach, V. Serneels and P. Dillmann

Photo 4. Dense slag flow plaques (superimposed ribbons). Experiment with Aulnay-Truchet type low hearth (Sarthe), 1997 – C. Dunikowski, S. Cabboï, P. Fluzin and A. Ploquin

Photo 5. Internal slag flows. Danawel archaeological site (Senegal), 1995 – H. Bocoum and P. Fluzin

Photo 6. Furnace bottom: excavation A 28. Aulnay-Truchet site (Sarthe), 1997 – S. Cabboï

Photo 7. Contemporary bloom. Ethnoarchaeological mission, Toungaré site (Burkina Faso), 1994. Weight: 60 kg

Photos 8 and 9. Ethnoarchaeological reconstitution: Agorregi forge, Basque Country (Spain), 1999, bloom No. 8, 21 kg – M. Urteaga, P. and S. Crew, P. Fluzin, R. Herbach, V. Serneels and P. Dillmann

Plate II. Refining, practices and waste 73

Photo 10. Ethnoarchaeological reconstitution: Agorregi forge, Basque Country (Spain), 1999 – M. Urteaga, P. and S. Crew, P. Fluzin, R. Herbach, V. Serneels and P. Dillmann

Photo 11. Traditional Japanese processes. Reduction and refining by fragmentation of the bloom, blade forging, polishing. Nancy, Jarville 1989 – O. Masami, W. Ryosui, P. Merluzzo, C. Forrières, A. Thouvenin and A. Ploquin

Photo 12. Contemporary refining forge hearth. Ethnoarchaeological mission, Toungaré site, Burkina Faso, 1994

Photo 13. Refining forge hearth and object shaping. Nancy experiment, 1997 – D. Leclère, P. Fluzin, M. Leroy and P. Merluzzo

Photo 14. Slag cake (1.5 kg) after refining of a 4.7 kg bloom. Nancy experiment, 1997 – D. Leclère, P. Fluzin, M. Leroy and P. Merluzzo

Photo 15. Gromps. Macrograph before and after cut (sample F104/06: 109 g). Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or), 2000 – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Photo 16. Slag cake (409 g), Cricket site (Alexandria, Egypt), Hellenistic period – V. Pichot and P. Fluzin

Photo 17. Section of archaeological cake. Ponte di Val Gabbia site, Bienno (Italy), 5th and 6th centuries A.D. Weight: 2.5 kg, 1998 – C. Cuccini Tizzoni, M. Tizzoni and P. Fluzin

Photo 18. Left to right: metal fragment, slags, slag billets recovered from the bottom of a refining hearth. Belfort experiment, 1995 – D. Leclère and P. Fluzin

Plate III. Semi-finished products and ingots 77

Photo 19. Refined bloom, possibly an ingot (contemporary, weight: 420 g). Ethnoarchaeological mission, Toungaré site (Burkina Faso), 1994

Photo 20. Gallo-Roman ingot in shape of irregular bar: Touffreville site (Calvados), 1995. Weight: 2.410 kg; 21 cm long; max. width: 5.5 cm; trapezoidal section: 5.5 x 5.4 x 4 cm – N. Coulthard and P. Fluzin

Photo 21. Blank of currency bar type: Aulnat site (Auvergne), 250–200 B.C., 737g – L. Orengo and P. Fluzin

Photos 22 and 25. Ingot, probably Gallo-Roman, from Coulmier-le-Sec site (Côte d’Or), weight: 4.7 kg; 16.3 cm long; median section:7.5 x 7.2 cm – J. Dumont

Photos 23 and 26. Ingot from Carthage (4th–3rd centuries B.C.). Weight: 1.77 kg; 20 cm long; 6.5 cm wide; 4 cm thick – F. Essaadi and P. Fluzin

Photo 24. Bipyramidal ingot (dredged from the Oise). Weight: 4.3 kg; 55 cm long; median section: 6.3 x 5.3 cm

Photo 27. Quarter section of bipyramidal ingot. Total weight: 4.3 kg – M. Leroy, P. Merluzzo and P. Fluzin

Plate IV. Forging: practice, tools and waste 79

Photo 28. Refining of bloom on wooden anvil. Belfort experiment, 1995 – D. Leclère and P. Fluzin

Photo 29. Refining on stone, Yelwani (Niger), 1991

Photo 30. Stone anvil 0.33 m x 0.20 m; 0.17 m high; 18 kg. Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or) – A. Faivre, M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Photo 31. Ethnological anvil, Naudjèla, Bulkiemdé province (Burkina Faso). 145 mm long; 69 mm wide; weight: 1.6 kg – H.T. Kienon and P. Fluzin

Photo 32. Final refining of bloom on anvil. Nancy experiment, 1997 – D. Leclère, P. Fluzin, M. Leroy and P. Merluzzo

Photo 33. Gallo-Roman forging slag cake (Saverne). Weight: 205 g, viewed from above – A.M. Adam and P. Fluzin

Photo 34. Iron oxide scale produced during forging – D. Leclère and P. Fluzin (© P. Fluzin)

Photo 35. Forge scrap, Aigueperse site (Auvergne), late 2nd century B.C. – L. Orengo and P. Fluzin

Photo 36. Metal scrap with imprint of hot slice (30 mm x 22 mm, weight: 24 g). Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or) – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Plate V. Metallographical indicators: reduction 84

Photo 37. Oolithic ore from Lorraine. During reduction, the metal emerges retaining the shape of the oolith. Reduction and refining experiment. Nancy-Belfort, 1995 – D. Leclère, P. Fluzin, M. Leroy and P. Merluzzo

Photos 38 and 39. Concentric agglomeration and densification in the middle of ingot from Carthage

Photos 40, 41 and 42. Filament- and string-shaped agglomerations with evacuation of slag. Beginning of fold formation. Experimental blooms from Agorregi (Spain)

Photo 43. Metallic folds formed during the refining of a bloom. Belfort experiment, 1995 – D. Leclère and P. Fluzin

Photo 44. Slightly deformed folds. Experimental bloom from Agorregi (Spain)

Photo 45. Centripetal agglomeration. Slag flow, Ponte di Val Gabbia site (Italy)

Plate VI. Metallographical indicators: refining 88

Photo 46. Fragment of jagged iron embedded in a porosity. Gallo-Roman archaeological cake. Touffreville site (Calvados), 1995 – N. Coulthard and P. Fluzin

Photo 47. Idem. The metal has been slightly hardenedTable of illustrations 13

Photo 48. Heat reoxidization of iron filaments and globules (ferrite). Slag cake: 125 g. Oppidum of Condé sur Suippe (Aisne), 2nd–1st centuries B.C. – S. Bauvais, P. Pion and P. Fluzin

Photo 49. Heat reoxidization. Slag cake: 139 g. Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or) – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Photo 50. Decarburization by oxidization around a porosity. Slag, Aigueperse site (Auvergne), end of 2nd century B.C. – L. Orengo and P. Fluzin

Photo 51. Thermomechanical crushing. Bar fragment (currency bar type): 132 g. Oppidum of Condé sur Suippe (Aisne), 2nd–1st centuries B.C. – S. Bauvais, P. Pion and P. Fluzin

Photo 52. Metal folds almost completely welded, experimental blooms from Agorregi (Spain)

Photo 53. Folds in the process of being crushed. Archaeological slag, site of Blessey-Salmaise, Forge F104, sample 104/15 – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Photo 54. Folds in the process of being crushed with partial flint infilling. Middle of an archaeological ingot, Coulmier-le-Sec site (Côte d’Or) – J. Dumont, M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Plate VII. Metallographical indicators: forging (of objects) 91

Photo 55. Fragment of hammer-hardened iron in a Gallo-Roman archaeological cake. Touffreville site (Calvados), 1995 – N. Coulthard and P. Fluzin

Photo 56. Filament of almost completely reoxidized iron. Archaeological slag. Juude-Jaabe site (Senegal), 1995 – H. Bocoum and P. Fluzin

Photo 57. Lamellar scale vestige. Slag cake, oppidum of Condé sur Suippe (Aisne), 2nd–1st centuries B.C. – S. Bauvais, P. Pion and

P. Fluzin

Photo 58. Globular scale vestige. Slag cake – same as Photo 57

Photo 59. Primary inclusions deformed in the direction of hammering. Ingot from Alésia (F-XXIV–408), 1996 – M. Mangin, P. Fluzin and P. Dillmann

Photo 60. Inclusions in an object during forging. Nancy experiment, 1997 – D. Leclère, P. Fluzin, M. Leroy and P. Merluzzo

Photo 61. Inclusions in a bar fragment (68 g). Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or) – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin14 Table of illustrations

Photo 62. Welding. Imperfect metal joints. Scrap. Aigueperse site (Auvergne), end of 2nd century B.C. (L. Orengo and P. Fluzin)

Photo 63. Microdamask. Scrap. Ancient agglomeration of Blessey-Salmaise (Côte d’Or) – M. Mangin and P. Fluzin

Plate VIII. The metal structure: iron, steel and cast iron, based on a metallographical study of archaeological samples 94

Photo 64. Pure iron, ferrite

Photo 65. Pure iron, hammer-hardened ferrite

Photo 66. Steel with 0.3% carbon, structure of needle-shaped ‘Widmanstätten’ ferrite

Photo 67. Steel with 0.8% carbon, generalized lamellar perlite

Photo 68. Tempered steel, nodular bainite, troostite

Photo 69. Tempered steel, martensite

Photo 70. Grey cast iron with graphite nodule

Photos 71 and 72. White cast iron, ledeburite

Photo 73. Datings of the metallurgy of iron at Termit 116

Photo 74. 5-cm hole to verify reduction of iron ore in furnace 155

Photo 75. Tuyères in respective holes 155

Photo 76. Door of furnace 155

Photo 77. Iron-smelting site, Yankari National Park, Bauchi state 155

Photo 78. Slag heaps on Ampara iron-smelting site 156

Photo 79. Scaled external coating of a tank furnace 156

Photo 80. Side view of a shaft furnace 156

Photo 81, 82 and 83. Various stages of destruction of shaft furnaces 157

Photo 84. Furnaces of Dogon metallurgists in Vol and Sege 174

Photo 85. Old furnaces (bôn-daagha) in Yatenga 175

Photo 86. Contemporary furnaces (bônga) at Yatenga 177

Photo 87. Mossi blacksmiths’ iron furnaces in Yatenga, with soldier indicating scale 179

Tables

Table 1. Datings based on organic ceramic tempers 113

Table 2. Multiple datings 114

Table 3. Dating of organic vegetable tempers of ceramics 122

Table 4. Radiocarbon dating of the Oliga site 140

Table 5. Radiocarbon dating of the Oliga site 140

Table 6. Iron-smelting sites in Nigeria 152

Table 7. Tools for productive activities 161

Table 8. Household utensils and appliances 161

Table 9. Religion and cult purposes 162

Table 10. Ceremonial objects for marriage 162

Table 11. Political and military purposes 162

Table 12. Human and animal motifs 162

Table 13. Various: panels, locks, etc. 162

Table 14. Yatenga: reconstitutions carried out at Kâyn. Comparative list of materials 184

Table 15. Chronological order and location of the most ancient relics of reduced iron ore in the world 189


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      Тема и вариации ................................ ............. ……...……………….......... 285
      Глава IV. Способы адаптации номадов к внешнему миру..................................................................... ………………............................. 323
      Седентаризация ............................................... ………………................ 324
      Торговля и торговое посредничество....... …………………………………. 328
      Подчинение и различные формы зависимости кочевников от оседлых обществ ........................... ………………….…..................... 341
      Подчинение и различные формы зависимости оседлых обществ от кочевников ......................... ………………………... ……… 354
      Глава V. Номады и государственность……...……………………………… 362
      Кочевая государственность и условия ее возникновения……………………………….................................... 362
      Основные типы и тенденции возникновения и эволюции кочевой государственности  ………………………………........... 366
      Евразийские степи, полупустыни и пустыни…………………………… 369
      Средний Восток .............................................. ……………………………….. 408
      Ближний Восток............................................. ……………………………….. 422
      Восточная Африка ......................................... ………………………………. 444
      Выводы…………………………………………………………………… 450
      Вместо заключения: внешний мир и кочевники……………… …. 461
      Послесловие, к третьему изданию.
      Кочевники в истории оседлого мира .................. ………………………………… 464
      Сокращения……………………………… ………………………………. 489
      Библиография........................................................................................................... 491
      Оглавление...........................................................................................................603
    • Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      By hoplit
      Просмотреть файл Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо). Раздел "Официальные бумаги". Сс. 279. М.: Восточная литература. 2017.
      Автор hoplit Добавлен 30.04.2020 Категория Корея
    • Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      By hoplit
      Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо). Раздел "Официальные бумаги". Сс. 279. М.: Восточная литература. 2017.