Чжан Гэда

Системы организации огня пехоты.

144 posts in this topic

Хорошего словаря (типа Мюллера) нет, а в Интернет-словарях что rank, что file - переводят и "ряд", и "шеренга", хотя шеренга и ряд - не одно и то же.

Вот тут описываются разные способы, но из-за того, что непонятно, что есть rank, и что есть file, разобраться очень сложно.

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5 часов назад, Чжан Гэда сказал:

Хорошего словаря (типа Мюллера) нет, а в Интернет-словарях что rank, что file - переводят и "ряд", и "шеренга", хотя шеренга и ряд - не одно и то же.

file - ряд.

rank - шеренга.

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Буду нудным - это точно?

Это по приличному словарю или по Интернет-словарям, которые часто брешут?

Иначе сложно понимать, что почем. Слов 2, и от их комбинации многое зависит. 

 

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16 минуту назад, Чжан Гэда сказал:

Буду нудным - это точно?

Это по приличному словарю или по Интернет-словарям, которые часто брешут?

Иначе сложно понимать, что почем. Слов 2, и от их комбинации многое зависит. 

Это, к примеру, из А.Жмодикова. А так - в литературе по периоду эти термины употребляются именно так. Мануалы и т.д.

На 18-19 века - точно так. На 17 и ранее - уже не так уверен. 

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Постоянно теряю. Наказ царя Алексея Михайловича воеводе Ю.А. Долгорукому в 1660-м году.

Записки отделения русской и славянской археологии Русского археологического общества, т. II, Спб., 1861, стр. 763-5.

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20 саженей - менее 45 метров.

10 саженей - чуть менее 22 метров. 

3 сажени - чуть более 6,5 метров.

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Никоновская летопись. ИМХО, как описание именно сражения при Ворскле в 1399-м, не стоит почти ничего. Слишком много деталей, которых нет в более ранних текстах, а предполагать некие "несохранившиеся источники" - проблематично. По крайней мере, насколько понимаю, специалисты как раз полагают, что из значимых летописных сводов эпохи до нас дошло "почти все в неплохой сохранности".

А вот как описание реалий первой половины 16 века - интересно.

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ИМХО, но описано поражение восточно-европейского войска, действующего с опорой на табор, от татар. Пушки и пищали описаны в связке с боевыми возами. Указано, что "в чистом поле" они не действенны. Можно понять, что вооруженные ими воины действовали как раз из "табора".

Действовала ли вне табора пехота - не ясно, прямых указаний на нее нет, а при описании обстрела указано, что татары "подстреляша под ними кони".

Конная часть рати оторвалась от "табора", после чего была окружена и разбита татарами. Дальше татары взяли и сам табор. 

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Кстати, интересный вопрос - к концу XVIII в. построения пехоты становятся 3-4 шереножными. А что было у нас по динамике изменения количества шеренг? 

Т.е. у Петра I еще были построения в 6-8 шеренг, а в Европе? И как в 1735-1739 гг. в России?

И пикинеры - в 1708 г. Петр I их вновь вводит в русской армии, а когда отменяет? Я нашел только у Татарникова упоминание, что пики в 1711 г. в Прутском походе в бою у Стэнилешти распилили для создания рогаток. И он же указывает, что в 1723 г. не все полки создали нужные комплекты вооружения пикинера (пики и пистолеты).

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22 часа назад, Чжан Гэда сказал:

Т.е. у Петра I еще были построения в 6-8 шеренг, а в Европе?

Сначала 6, потом (уже в первые годы СВ) в 4. В Европе - по разному. Англичане уже перешли на три, французы - на 5, потом на 4. Большая часть немцев, емнип, 4. При этом те же 6 шеренг, когда их использовали, могли сдваивать для стрельбы в три.

К середине 18 века в большей части армий - 4 шеренги, в некоторых - три. Во второй половине века (Семилетка и после нее) - массово переходят на три шеренги, иногда - две.

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У Паркера

Цитата

Martin de Eguiluz, Milicia, discurso y regla militar (Madrid, 1592, but written in 1586), fos. 126V-7V, noting that after four rounds an arquebus overheated and could no longer be used accurately

 

Вот эта часть Martin de Eguiluz. Milicia, discurso y regla militar.

Цитата

y assi estas tres fileras tira cada vna quatro tiros y no mas ... do el arcabuzeria sienpre a cada quatro tiros, y quando mucho no passen de cinco: porque el arcabuz quando a tirado mas tiros destos haze poca facion, porque esta demasiado caliente, y se deshaze el plomo es dentro y no haze efeto, que yo lo tengo muy bien prouado infinitas vezes


Еще одно издание.

P.S. Про "контрмарш" у него страницей выше.

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Olaf van Nimwegen. The Dutch Army and the Military Revolutions, 1588-1688. 2006

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В книге приведены эти схемы с архивными шифрами, но - в версии на гугло-буке они скрыты.

 

В 1595-м система 

Цитата

один ряд - одна улица

была упразднена

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The Twelve Years Truce (1609). 2014

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Мушкетная пуля - 12 на амстердамский фунт, аркебузная - 24.

У Паркера в The Limits to Revolutions in Military Affairs: Maurice of Nassau, the Battle of Nieuwpoort (1600), and the Legacy

Цитата

The Ordre op de wapeninge issued by the States-General in 1599 specified that all muskets must be able to fire “12 bullets to the pound” (one-twelfth of an Amsterdam pound of 494 grams, or 41.2 grams): Michiel de Jong, “Staet van Oorlog.” Wapenbedrijf en militaire hervormingen in de Republiek der Verenigde Nederlanden, 1585–1621 (Hilversum: Verloren, 2005), 30–31.

 

Еще - Olaf van Nimwegen. The Tactical Military Revolution and Dutch Army Operations during the Era of the Twelve Years Truce (1592–1618) // The Twelve Years Truce (1609). Peace, Truce, War and Law in the Low Countries at the Turn of the 17th Century. 2014

Цитата

In 1586, the areas under full rebel control were reduced to a mere four provinces: Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Friesland. The undisciplined and underpaid Dutch troops were on the verge of mutiny. But even if they were willing to fight, they were no match for the army of Philip II. Discipline and training made the difference between triumph and defeat on the battlefield. Spain’s crack infantry regiments – the tercios and the German Landsknechts – were deemed by contemporaries to be all but unbeatable. Dutch troops lacked the esprit de corps of their adversaries. But that was not all. They also lacked the proper weapons for fighting in the open field. To be able to face attacking infantry or cavalry without cover a sufficient number of pikes was needed. The pikemen – soldiers armed with an ash pole fitted with an iron point with a total length of eighteen feet (c. 5½ metres) – formed a living palisade behind which the musketeers and calivermen could find refuge when threatened by a cavalry charge or infantry assault. Muskets and calivers, smoothbore firearms with a calibre of 20 mm and 17.4 mm respectively and an effective range of approximately 75 paces of two-and-a-half feet (c. 55 metres), required an average loading time of one minute between shots. In damp or rainy weather, they were sensitive to misfires because they were fitted with a matchlock firing mechanism. On pulling the trigger a cock holding a smouldering slow-match was forced down into a pan filled with fine priming powder. The lightly armoured musketeers and calivermen had no hope of survival in hand to hand combat with swordsmen, halberdiers or horsemen. Bayonets that could be fitted onto the muzzle of the musket without impeding loading and firing would not be invented until the end of the 17th century. In German regiments, approximately half of the soldiers were therefore armed with polearms and swords, and in Spanish units this could be as high as seventy percent. In contrast, the Dutch rebel infantry of the 1570s and early 1580s numbered just twenty to twenty-five percent pikemen, halberdiers and swordsmen; approximately 70 percent of each company being armed with calivers (see Appendix II). Consequently the Dutch troops were far inferior in fighting strength to the Spaniards

Цитата

 According to ancient wisdom those ‘who want to gain honour with soldiers, must pay well and punish immediately’. The first condition was met by the introduction of the ‘repartitiestelsel’ in 1588. This system allotted a portion of the payment of the Dutch troops to each of the member provinces organised in the Union of Utrecht (1579) according to their financial wherewithal. Well paid soldiers were not however synonymous with skilled ones. William Louis and his cousin Maurice agreed with the notion dating from Classical Antiquity that wars were not won by the largest army but by the one whose discipline and training was superior. In the 1590s, Maurice and William Louis started a series of reforms that resulted in a tactical military revolution. Their new, more scientific approach to the art of war marked by study of Greek and Roman military treatises, theoretical discussions on the practical use of ancient tactics for contemporary warfare, subsequent experiments with a diversity of tactical formations using ‘tin soldiers’, and eventually in exercises with actual soldiers, established the basis for the systematic exercising and drilling of troops. This was a prerequisite for challenging the Spanish army in the open field. The ambitions of Maurice and William Louis did not end here. It was not just that they wanted to make Dutch soldiers the equals of their adversaries; they aimed at surpassing the enemy in fighting-power. They hoped to achieve this through optimising the use of firearms on the battlefield.

Цитата

In his Tactica, Aelian described the tactics of the Greek-Macedonian-Hellenistic tradition. It was not an original work because Aelian mainly voiced the opinions of earlier authors and in particular those of Asclepiodotus the philosopher (1st century bc). In Ancient Greece, military affairs were part of the study of philosophy and this explains the logical and systematic way with which the Greeks dealt with the matter of tactics. They had worked out the distribution of troops into units down to the lowest level of command, thereby ensuring that the command structure was crystal clear. All movements the troops had to make together (e.g. facing about, turning to the left or right, the closing and opening of ranks and files) had their specific word of command. Aelian warned his readers that these had to be short and  unambiguous to avoid confusion.

‘For example, if I say “Face”, some of those who hear this command may face to the right and others to the left, and this will produce no small confusion. As the word “face” is a general one I should not say “Face – right,” when I want to turn to the right or the left, but “Right – face.” Therefore I must prefix the special to the general [direction], so that all will do the same together’. 

The Greek words of command were very appropriate for 16th-century warfare. William Louis and Maurice faced the same problems as ancient generals when moving large bodies of men on the battlefield. Besides Aelian’s teachings on the words of command William Louis was fascinated by the Greek’s treatment of the ‘choreain’ or Cretan countermarch.

The greatest threat to a Greek and Macedonian phalanx (a pike unit with a depth of eight and sixteen ranks respectively) was an attack from the rear, because the most skilled soldiers were positioned in the front ranks. It was therefore of vital interest to be able to about-turn and then to march as quickly as possible to the rear, so that the best troops would again be facing the enemy. This was a complex manoeuvre that could easily throw the unit into disorder. To prevent this from happening the Greeks and Macedonians had developed the countermarch. It existed in three variants of which the Cretan or ‘choreian’ was according to William Louis the most suitable for warfare in his day because of the possibilities it offered for use with firearms.

Цитата

Leo VI’s military manual impressed William Louis with its clear treatment of all facets of warfare, and in particular those of drill and weapons training. Leo VI was of the opinion that soldiers had to exercise on a daily basis, because idleness led to moral corruption. Before taking up their places within the unit, recruits first had to be instructed individually in the use of their weapons. Next they had to be taught the meaning of the words of command, so that they would perform their movements together. In imitation of the Greek General Xenophon (c. 430–354 bc), Leo VI advocated the staging of sham battles arming the soldiers with blunt pikes and ordering them to throw clods at each other. These exercises were especially important in peacetime to maintain fighting ability but also in wartime during the winter when armies lay dormant in numerous garrisons. Mock fights mentally prepared the troops for real battle so that they would not panic when they came face to face with the enemy.

 

Цитата

In 1600, William Louis’s and Maurice’s tactical innovations were put to the most severe test imaginable: a pitched battle without the option of retreat. On 2 July 1600, approximately 11,000 Dutch and an equal number of Spanish troops faced each other on the beach and dunes near the Flemish seaport of Nieuwpoort. Battle was joined at around half past three in the afternoon. For a long time the battle wavered, but then the Dutch troops started to bend before the Spanish attack. The Spaniards interpreted this as proof that victory was imminent and pushed on, but their attacking drive proved to be a drawback. In contrast to the battles of the 1570s and 1580s, the Dutch infantry did not turn heels, but maintained its battle order and poured volley after volley into the enemy. When the Spanish infantry had moved so far forward that its flanks were left unprotected, Maurice saw his chance to decide the battle. He had kept a few companies of horse in reserve and now these fresh troopers went on the offensive. The Dutch cavalrymen hit the Spaniards in the flank and scattered them. The Spanish army’s retreat began at around 7 pm. Both parties had sustained heavy losses. The Dutch army suffered 1000 fatalities and 700 wounded, but on the Spanish side there were 3000 or so fatalities and a further 600 Spaniards were taken prisoner.

 

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Lars Ericson Wolke. The Swedish Army of the Great Northern War 1700-1721. 2018

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Великанов В.С., Мехнев С.Л. Курляндский поход Шереметева и «упущенная виктория» при Мур-музе (Гемауэргофе) 26 июля 1705 г. // Военно-исторический журнал "Старый Цейхгауз". № 57 (1/2014). М. 2014. С. 70-80.

Шведская пехота - около 4000 человек. Если правильно понимаю - активно она действовала где-то часа два, с 19 до 21 часа или около того.

В течение боя у Мур-мызы был расстрелян почти весь боезапас - к концу боя у стрелков осталось по 2-3 патрона, редко 4-5. Первоначальный боезапас был по 36 патронов. 

В.С. Великанов пишет про примерно 120 тысяч пистолетных и ружейных выстрелов со стороны шведов.

С результативностью - не ясно. Общие потери русской армии - 2250 человек. Но это с учетом дезертиров, отставших, пленных и погибших от холодного оружия и артиллерии. Даже если отнести на ружейный огонь тысячи две (а это, насколько понимаю, заведомое завышение) - эффективность огня это 60 выстрелов на выбывшего. Реально - больше.

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К. Клаузевиц. Бой батальона принца Августа. В старых изданиях Клаузевица (довоенных) этот фрагмент был, с послевоенных его почему-то часто выкидывают. На немецком.

На английском. 

Цитата

The Prince exalted them to make an honorable resistance, to be calm, not to lose their heads and particularly not to fire before receiving orders to do so. Some minutes later, the hostile cavalry advanced. The battalion executed "halt—ready," and the men were then cautioned: "Do not fire." I thought for a moment to myself of the battle of Minden where the French cavalry charged two Hanover battalions; and when these failed to fire at the usual distance, they came gradually from a gallop to a trot and finally from a trot to a walk. Exactly the same thing happened here. The French dragoons advanced at a gallop, and we could see with what anxiety they awaited the moment when they would receive our fire; when at a range of 100 paces they had received no fire, they more and more drew in on their horses, and finally were approaching us only at a slow trot. Fire was ordered at 30 paces; many fell, the rest lay down in rear of their horses' necks, wheeled about and fled. Now all our men were well in hand.

Цитата

The calmness maintained by its chief and his officers, and their continuous caution not to fire, and consequently retaining the fire until late, caused the success.

I am persuaded that it is not in the nature of a cavalryman to wish to have himself killed in such cases by a musket shot. It is usually believed that the hostile cavalry, at the moment when they actually turned about could have charged without danger. But this is a false idea. Infantry fire under any form used (with us we have thought of battalion volleys, that fronts attacked should fire at the same time, and that in serious cases, this is the only possible manner), does not strike down the cavalry so suddenly, but that they by continuing to advance do not always receive many shots at very short range, in the last case as is said, a bout pourtant and it is these shots at point' blank ranges which everybody fears. In other cases, in which we have formed infantry squares, we could certainly count upon the fact that the infantry was no longer in order, and had already commenced to weaken before the brave cavalry had had the time to turn around, or that it had fired too soon at between 200 and 100 paces, and that at the moment where the cavalry was very close to the square none or little fire came from it. If horse artillery prepares a charge the effect will be almost always decisive against troops with slight military spirit, but in fact it amounts to little against French troops as the author knows from experience. I therefore say: Consideration being given to the effects of artillery, the best and most effective formations for attacking infantry, will always be to charge in echelon in several lines, in such manner that the first charge will be immediately followed by a second. This cannot be done unless the squadrons are divided into platoons and this is so much disliked by captains that this method of attack is not general.

Не знаю, насколько это будет корректно, но постоянно приходит на ум сравнение батальона западноевропейской пехоты с органным орудием. Или митральезой. 

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Laurence Spring. The First British Army, 1624-1628. The Army of the Duke of Buckingham. 2016

Цитата

Although whether a volley was delivered by a single rank or more, Sir John Smythe records that ‘a few volleys well given with pieces leisurely and therefore well charged shot, within 20, 30 or 40 paces do work more effective then a great number of volleys out of pieces charged in haste or a great distance.’

Цитата

BL: Harl MS 135, Sir John Smythe’s answer to Captain Humphrey Barwike’s book on military affairs.

 

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      - Α.Κ. Нефёдкин. ТАКТИКА СЛАВЯН В VI в. (ПО СВИДЕТЕЛЬСТВАМ РАННЕВИЗАНТИЙСКИХ АВТОРОВ).
      - Цыбикдоржиев Д.В. Мужской союз, дружина и гвардия у монголов: преемственность и конфликты.
      - Вдовченков E.B. Происхождение дружины и мужские союзы: сравнительно-исторический анализ и проблемы политогенеза в древних обществах.
      - Louise E. Sweet. Camel Raiding of North Arabian Bedouin: A Mechanism of Ecological Adaptation //  American Aiztlzropologist 67, 1965.
      - Peters E.L. Some Structural Aspects of the Feud among the Camel-Herding Bedouin of Cyrenaica // Africa: Journal of the International African Institute,  Vol. 37, No. 3 (Jul., 1967), pp. 261-282
       
       
      - Зуев А.С. О боевой тактике и военном менталитете коряков, чукчей и эскимосов.
      - Зуев А.С. Диалог культур на поле боя (о военном менталитете народов северо-востока Сибири в XVII–XVIII вв.).
      - О.А. Митько. Люди и оружие (воинская культура русских первопроходцев и коренного населения Сибири в эпоху позднего средневековья).
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      - Головнев А.В. Говорящие культуры. Традиции самодийцев и угров.
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      - Нефедкин А.К. Колесницы и нарты: к проблеме реконструкции тактики // Археология Евразийских степей. 2020
       
      - N. W. Simmonds. Archery in South East Asia s the Pacific.
      - Inez de Beauclair. Fightings and Weapons of the Yami of Botel Tobago.
      - Adria Holmes Katz. Corselets of Fiber: Robert Louis Stevenson's Gilbertese Armor.
      - Laura Lee Junker. WARRIOR BURIALS AND THE NATURE OF WARFARE IN PREHISPANIC PHILIPPINE CHIEFDOMS.
      - Andrew  P.  Vayda. WAR  IN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE PERSISTENCE,  CHANGE,  AND  ADAPTIVE PROCESSES IN  THREE  OCEANIAN  SOCIETIES.
      - D. U. Urlich. THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF FIREARMS IN NEW ZEALAND 1800-1840.
      - Alphonse Riesenfeld. Rattan Cuirasses and Gourd Penis-Cases in New Guinea.
      - W. Lloyd Warner. Murngin Warfare.
      - E. W. Gudger. Helmets from Skins of the Porcupine-Fish.
      - K. R. HOWE. Firearms and Indigenous Warfare: a Case Study.
      - Paul  D'Arcy. FIREARMS ON MALAITA -1870-1900. 
      - William Churchill. Club Types of Nuclear Polynesia.
      - Henry Reynolds. Forgotten war. 2013
      - Henry Reynolds. The Other Side of the Frontier. Aboriginal Resistance to the European Invasion of Australia. 1981
      - John Connor. Australian Frontier Wars, 1788-1838. 2002
      -  Ronald M. Berndt. Warfare in the New Guinea Highlands.
      - Pamela J. Stewart and Andrew Strathern. Feasting on My Enemy: Images of Violence and Change in the New Guinea Highlands.
      - Thomas M. Kiefer. Modes of Social Action in Armed Combat: Affect, Tradition and Reason in Tausug Private Warfare // Man New Series, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Dec., 1970), pp. 586-596
      - Thomas M. Kiefer. Reciprocity and Revenge in the Philippines: Some Preliminary Remarks about the Tausug of Jolo // Philippine Sociological Review. Vol. 16, No. 3/4 (JULY-OCTOBER, 1968), pp. 124-131
      - Thomas M. Kiefer. Parrang Sabbil: Ritual suicide among the Tausug of Jolo // Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 129, 1ste Afl., ANTHROPOLOGICA XV (1973), pp. 108-123
      - Thomas M. Kiefer. Institutionalized Friendship and Warfare among the Tausug of Jolo // Ethnology. Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1968), pp. 225-244
      - Thomas M. Kiefer. Power, Politics and Guns in Jolo: The Influence of Modern Weapons on Tao-Sug Legal and Economic Institutions // Philippine Sociological Review. Vol. 15, No. 1/2, Proceedings of the Fifth Visayas-Mindanao Convention: Philippine Sociological Society May 1-2, 1967 (JANUARY-APRIL, 1967), pp. 21-29
      - Armando L. Tan. Shame, Reciprocity and Revenge: Some Reflections on the Ideological Basis of Tausug Conflict // Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. Vol. 9, No. 4 (December 1981), pp. 294-300.
      - Karl G. Heider, Robert Gardner. Gardens of War: Life and Death in the New Guinea Stone Age. 1968.
      - P. D'Arcy. Maori and Muskets from a Pan-Polynesian Perspective // The New Zealand journal of history 34(1):117-132. April 2000. 
      - Andrew P. Vayda. Maoris and Muskets in New Zealand: Disruption of a War System // Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 85, No. 4 (Dec., 1970), pp. 560-584
      - D. U. Urlich. The Introduction and Diffusion of Firearms in New Zealand 1800–1840 // The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 79, No. 4 (DECEMBER 1970), pp. 399-41
      -  Barry Craig. Material culture of the upper Sepik‪ // Journal de la Société des Océanistes 2018/1 (n° 146), pages 189 à 201
      -  Paul B. Rosco. Warfare, Terrain, and Political Expansion // Human Ecology. Vol. 20, No. 1 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1-20
      - Anne-Marie Pétrequin and Pierre Pétrequin. Flèches de chasse, flèches de guerre: Le cas des Danis d'Irian Jaya (Indonésie) // Anne-Marie Pétrequin and Pierre Pétrequin. Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française. T. 87, No. 10/12, Spécial bilan de l'année de l'archéologie (1990), pp. 484-511
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      - Bard Rydland Aaberge. Aboriginal Rainforest Shields of North Queensland [unpublished manuscript]. 2009
      - Leonard Y. Andaya. Nature of War and Peace among the Bugis–Makassar People // South East Asia Research. Volume 12, 2004 - Issue 1
      - Forts and Fortification in Wallacea: Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Investigations. Terra Australis. 2020
       
       
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Higi Armed Combat.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. THE EVOLUTION OF ZULU WARFARE.
      - Myron J. Echenberg. Late nineteenth-century military technology in Upper Volta // The Journal of African History, 12, pp 241-254. 1971.
      - E. E. Evans-Pritchard. Zande Warfare // Anthropos, Bd. 52, H. 1./2. (1957), pp. 239-262
      - Julian Cobbing. The Evolution of Ndebele Amabutho // The Journal of African History. Vol. 15, No. 4 (1974), pp. 607-631
       
       
      - Elizabeth Arkush and Charles Stanish. Interpreting Conflict in the Ancient Andes: Implications for the Archaeology of Warfare.
      - Elizabeth Arkush. War, Chronology, and Causality in the Titicaca Basin.
      - R.B. Ferguson. Blood of the Leviathan: Western Contact and Warfare in Amazonia.
      - J. Lizot. Population, Resources and Warfare Among the Yanomami.
      - Bruce Albert. On Yanomami Warfare: Rejoinder.
      - R. Brian Ferguson. Game Wars? Ecology and Conflict in Amazonia. 
      - R. Brian Ferguson. Ecological Consequences of Amazonian Warfare.
      - Marvin Harris. Animal Capture and Yanomamo Warfare: Retrospect and New Evidence.
       
       
      - Lydia T. Black. Warriors of Kodiak: Military Traditions of Kodiak Islanders.
      - Herbert D. G. Maschner and Katherine L. Reedy-Maschner. Raid, Retreat, Defend (Repeat): The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Warfare on the North Pacific Rim.
      - Bruce Graham Trigger. Trade and Tribal Warfare on the St. Lawrence in the Sixteenth Century.
      - T. M. Hamilton. The Eskimo Bow and the Asiatic Composite.
      - Owen K. Mason. The Contest between the Ipiutak, Old Bering Sea, and Birnirk Polities and the Origin of Whaling during the First Millennium A.D. along Bering Strait.
      - Caroline Funk. The Bow and Arrow War Days on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska.
      - HERBERT MASCHNER AND OWEN K. MASON. The Bow and Arrow in Northern North America. 
      - NATHAN S. LOWREY. AN ETHNOARCHAEOLOGICAL INQUIRY INTO THE FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROJECTILE POINT AND ARMOR TECHNOLOGIES OF THE NORTHWEST COAST.
      - F. A. Golder. Primitive Warfare among the Natives of Western Alaska. 
      - Donald Mitchell. Predatory Warfare, Social Status, and the North Pacific Slave Trade. 
      - H. Kory Cooper and Gabriel J. Bowen. Metal Armor from St. Lawrence Island. 
      - Katherine L. Reedy-Maschner and Herbert D. G. Maschner. Marauding Middlemen: Western Expansion and Violent Conflict in the Subarctic.
      - Madonna L. Moss and Jon M. Erlandson. Forts, Refuge Rocks, and Defensive Sites: The Antiquity of Warfare along the North Pacific Coast of North America.
      - Owen K. Mason. Flight from the Bering Strait: Did Siberian Punuk/Thule Military Cadres Conquer Northwest Alaska?
      - Joan B. Townsend. Firearms against Native Arms: A Study in Comparative Efficiencies with an Alaskan Example. 
      - Jerry Melbye and Scott I. Fairgrieve. A Massacre and Possible Cannibalism in the Canadian Arctic: New Evidence from the Saunaktuk Site (NgTn-1).
      - McClelland A.V. The Evolution of Tlingit Daggers // Sharing Our Knowledge. The Tlingit and Their Coastal Neighbors. 2015
       
       
      - ФРЭНК СЕКОЙ. ВОЕННЫЕ НАВЫКИ ИНДЕЙЦЕВ ВЕЛИКИХ РАВНИН.
      - Hoig, Stan. Tribal Wars of the Southern Plains.
      - D. E. Worcester. Spanish Horses among the Plains Tribes.
      - DANIEL J. GELO AND LAWRENCE T. JONES III. Photographic Evidence for Southern Plains Armor.
      - Heinz W. Pyszczyk. Historic Period Metal Projectile Points and Arrows, Alberta, Canada: A Theory for Aboriginal Arrow Design on the Great Plains.
      - Waldo R. Wedel. CHAIN MAIL IN PLAINS ARCHEOLOGY.
      - Mavis Greer and John Greer. Armored Horses in Northwestern Plains Rock Art.
      - James D. Keyser, Mavis Greer and John Greer. Arminto Petroglyphs: Rock Art Damage Assessment and Management Considerations in Central Wyoming.
      - Mavis Greer and John Greer. Armored
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      - Thomas Frank Schilz and Donald E. Worcester. The Spread of Firearms among the Indian Tribes on the Northern Frontier of New Spain.
      - Стукалин Ю. Военное дело индейцев Дикого Запада. Энциклопедия.
      - James D. Keyser and Michael A. Klassen. Plains Indian rock art.
       
       
      - D. Bruce Dickson. The Yanomamo of the Mississippi Valley? Some Reflections on Larson (1972), Gibson (1974), and Mississippian Period Warfare in the Southeastern United States.
      - Steve A. Tomka. THE ADOPTION OF THE BOW AND ARROW: A MODEL BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS.
      - Wayne  William  Van  Horne. The  Warclub: Weapon  and  symbol  in  Southeastern  Indian  Societies.
      - W.  KARL  HUTCHINGS s  LORENZ  W.  BRUCHER. Spearthrower performance: ethnographic and  experimental research.
      - DOUGLAS J. KENNETT, PATRICIA M. LAMBERT, JOHN R. JOHNSON, AND BRENDAN J. CULLETON. Sociopolitical Effects of Bow and Arrow Technology in Prehistoric Coastal California.
      - The Ethics of Anthropology and Amerindian Research Reporting on Environmental Degradation and Warfare. Editors Richard J. Chacon, Rubén G. Mendoza.
      - Walter Hough. Primitive American Armor. Тут, тут и тут.
      - George R. Milner. Nineteenth-Century Arrow Wounds and Perceptions of Prehistoric Warfare.
      - Patricia M. Lambert. The Archaeology of War: A North American Perspective.
      - David E. Jonesэ Native North American Armor, Shields, and Fortifications.
      - Laubin, Reginald. Laubin, Gladys. American Indian Archery.
      - Karl T. Steinen. AMBUSHES, RAIDS, AND PALISADES: MISSISSIPPIAN WARFARE IN THE INTERIOR SOUTHEAST.
      - Jon L. Gibson. Aboriginal Warfare in the Protohistoric Southeast: An Alternative Perspective. 
      - Barbara A. Purdy. Weapons, Strategies, and Tactics of the Europeans and the Indians in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Florida.
      - Charles Hudson. A Spanish-Coosa Alliance in Sixteenth-Century North Georgia.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Why the Iroquois Won: An Analysis of Iroquois Military Tactics.
      - George R. Milner. Warfare in Prehistoric and Early Historic Eastern North America // Journal of Archaeological Research, Vol. 7, No. 2 (June 1999), pp. 105-151
      - George R. Milner, Eve Anderson and Virginia G. Smith. Warfare in Late Prehistoric West-Central Illinois // American Antiquity. Vol. 56, No. 4 (Oct., 1991), pp. 581-603
      - Daniel K. Richter. War and Culture: The Iroquois Experience. 
      - Jeffrey P. Blick. The Iroquois practice of genocidal warfare (1534‐1787).
      - Michael S. Nassaney and Kendra Pyle. The Adoption of the Bow and Arrow in Eastern North America: A View from Central Arkansas.
      - J. Ned Woodall. MISSISSIPPIAN EXPANSION ON THE EASTERN FRONTIER: ONE STRATEGY IN THE NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT.
      - Roger Carpenter. Making War More Lethal: Iroquois vs. Huron in the Great Lakes Region, 1609 to 1650.
      - Craig S. Keener. An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Iroquois Assault Tactics Used against Fortified Settlements of the Northeast in the Seventeenth Century.
      - Leroy V. Eid. A Kind of : Running Fight: Indian Battlefield Tactics in the Late Eighteenth Century.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Huron vs. Iroquois: A Case Study in Inter-Tribal Warfare.
      - Jennifer Birch. Coalescence and Conflict in Iroquoian Ontario // Archaeological Review from Cambridge - 25.1 - 2010
      - William J. Hunt, Jr. Ethnicity and Firearms in the Upper Missouri Bison-Robe Trade: An Examination of Weapon Preference and Utilization at Fort Union Trading Post N.H.S., North Dakota.
      - Patrick M. Malone. Changing Military Technology Among the Indians of Southern New England, 1600-1677.
      - David H. Dye. War Paths, Peace Paths An Archaeology of Cooperation and Conflict in Native Eastern North America.
      - Wayne Van Horne. Warfare in Mississippian Chiefdoms.
      - Wayne E. Lee. The Military Revolution of Native North America: Firearms, Forts, and Polities // Empires and indigenes: intercultural alliance, imperial expansion, and warfare in the early modern world. Edited by Wayne E. Lee. 2011
      - Steven LeBlanc. Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. 1999.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. A History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology // American Anthropologist. Vol. 101, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 794-805
      - Lee, Wayne. Fortify, Fight, or Flee: Tuscarora and Cherokee Defensive Warfare and Military Culture Adaptation // The Journal of Military History, Volume 68, Number 3, July 2004, pp. 713-770
      - Wayne E. Lee. Peace Chiefs and Blood Revenge: Patterns of Restraint in Native American Warfare, 1500-1800 // The Journal of Military History. Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jul., 2007), pp. 701-741
       
      - Weapons, Weaponry and Man: In Memoriam Vytautas Kazakevičius (Archaeologia Baltica, Vol. 8). 2007
      - The Horse and Man in European Antiquity: Worldview, Burial Rites, and Military and Everyday Life (Archaeologia Baltica, Vol. 11). 2009
      - The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. 2007
      - The Ethics of Anthropology and Amerindian Research. Reporting on Environmental Degradation and Warfare. 2012
      - Empires and Indigenes: Intercultural Alliance, Imperial Expansion, and Warfare in the Early Modern World. 2011
      - A. Gat. War in Human Civilization.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Killing of Captured Enemies: A Cross‐cultural Study.
      - Azar Gat. The Causes and Origins of "Primitive Warfare": Reply to Ferguson.
      - Azar Gat. The Pattern of Fighting in Simple, Small-Scale, Prestate Societies.
      - Lawrence H. Keeley. War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Warfare and Its Relationship to the Origins of Agriculture.
      - Jonathan Haas. Warfare and the Evolution of Culture.
      - М. Дэйви. Эволюция войн.
      - War in the Tribal Zone Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare Edited by R. Brian Ferguson and Neil L. Whitehead.
      - I.J.N. Thorpe. Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare.
      - Антропология насилия. Новосибирск. 2010.
      - Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit. The origins of war: violence in prehistory. 2005. Французское издание было в 2001 году - le Sentier de la Guerre: Visages de la violence préhistorique.
      - Warfare in Bronze Age Society. 2018
      - Ian Armit. Headhunting and the Body in Iron Age Europe. 2012
      - The Cambridge World History of Violence. Vol. I-IV. 2020

    • Сеньориальные и "частные" войны.
      By hoplit
      - Justine Firnhaber-Baker. From God’s Peace to the King’s Order: Late Medieval Limitations on Non-Royal Warfare // Essays in Medieval Studies Volume 23, 2006.
      - Justine Firnhaber-Baker. Seigneurial War and Royal Power in Later Medieval Southern France // Past & Present, Vol. 208, No. 1, 2010, p. 37-76.
      - Justine Firnhaber-Baker. Techniques of seigneurial war in the fourteenth century // Journal of Medieval History 36(1): 90-103. 2010.
       - Gadi Algazi. Pruning Peasants Private War and Maintaining the Lords’ Peace in Late Medieval Germany // Medieval Transformations: Texts, Power and Gifts in Context, Esther Cohen & Mayke de Jong eds. (Leiden: Brill, 2000), pp. 245–274.
      -  Geary Patrick J. Vivre en conflit dans une France sans État : typologie des mécanismes de règlement des conflits (1050-1200) // Annales. Economies, sociétés, civilisations. 41ᵉ année, N. 5, 1986. pp. 1107-1133
       
      Также - Justine Firnhaber-Baker. Violence and the State in Languedoc, 1250-1400. 2014.
       
      Сборник статей по "приватным войнам" в домонгольском Иране - Iranian Studies, volume 38, number 4, December 2005.
      - Jürgen Paul. Introduction: Private warfare in pre-Mongol Iran.
      - Ahmed Abdelsalam. The practice of violence in the ḥisba-theories.
      - Deborah Tor. Privatized Jihad and public order in the pre-Seljuq period: The role of the Mutatawwi‘a.
      - Jürgen Paul. The Seljuq conquest(s) of Nishapur: A reappraisal.
      - David Durand-guédy. Iranians at war under Turkish domination: The example of pre-Mongol Isfahan. 
       
      Juergen Paul
      -  Juergen Paul. The State and the military: the Samanid case // Papers on hater Asia, 26. 1994
      - Juergen Paul. Armies, lords, and subjects in medieval Iran // The Cambridge World History of Violence, vol. 2. 2020
      - Juergen Paul. The State and the Military – a Nomadic Perspective // Militär und Staatlichkeit. Beiträge des Kolloquiums am 29. und 30.04.2002. 2003
      И у него же - пачка свежих интересных работ по региональной элите. К примеру:
      Juergen Paul. Who Were the Mulūk Fārs // Transregional and Regional Elites - Connecting the Early Islamic Empire. 2020
      Juergen Paul. Local Lords or Rural Notables? Some Remarks on the ra'is in Twelfth Century Eastern Iran // Medieval Central Asia and the Persianate World. Iranian Tradition and Islamic Civilisation. 2015
      Juergen Paul. Hasanwayh b. Husayn al-Kurdi: From freehold castles to vassality? // The Abbasid and Carolingian Empires. Comparative Studies in Civilizational Formation. 2017
       
    • Мусульманские армии Средних веков
      By hoplit
      Maged S. A. Mikhail. Notes on the "Ahl al-Dīwān": The Arab-Egyptian Army of the Seventh through the Ninth Centuries C.E. // Journal of the American Oriental Society,  Vol. 128, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 2008), pp. 273-284
      David Ayalon. Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army // Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
      David Ayalon. Aspects of the Mamlūk Phenomenon // Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East
      Bethany J. Walker. Militarization to Nomadization: The Middle and Late Islamic Periods // Near Eastern Archaeology,  Vol. 62, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 202-232
      David Ayalon. The Mamlūks of the Seljuks: Islam's Military Might at the Crossroads //  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Nov., 1996), pp. 305-333
      David Ayalon. The Auxiliary Forces of the Mamluk Sultanate // Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East. Volume 65, Issue 1 (Jan 1988)
      C. E. Bosworth. The Armies of the Ṣaffārids // Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,  Vol. 31, No. 3 (1968), pp. 534-554
      C. E. Bosworth. Military Organisation under the Būyids of Persia and Iraq // Oriens,  Vol. 18/19 (1965/1966), pp. 143-167
      R. Stephen Humphreys. The Emergence of the Mamluk Army //  Studia Islamica,  No. 45 (1977), pp. 67-99
      R. Stephen Humphreys. The Emergence of the Mamluk Army (Conclusion) // Studia Islamica,  No. 46 (1977), pp. 147-182
      Nicolle, D. The military technology of classical Islam. PhD Doctor of Philosophy. University of Edinburgh. 1982
      Nicolle D. Fighting for the Faith: the many fronts of Crusade and Jihad, 1000-1500 AD. 2007
      Nicolle David. Cresting on Arrows from the Citadel of Damascus // Bulletin d’études orientales, 2017/1 (n° 65), p. 247-286.
      David Nicolle. The Zangid bridge of Ǧazīrat ibn ʿUmar (ʿAyn Dīwār/Cizre): a New Look at the carved panel of an armoured horseman // Bulletin d’études orientales, LXII. 2014
      David Nicolle. The Iconography of a Military Elite: Military Figures on an Early Thirteenth-Century Candlestick. В трех частях. 2014-19
      Patricia Crone. The ‘Abbāsid Abnā’ and Sāsānid Cavalrymen // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 8 (1998)
      D.G. Tor. The Mamluks in the military of the pre-Seljuq Persianate dynasties // Iran,  Vol. 46 (2008), pp. 213-225 (!)
      J. W. Jandora. Developments in Islamic Warfare: The Early Conquests // Studia Islamica,  No. 64 (1986), pp. 101-113
      John W. Jandora. The Battle of the Yarmuk: A Reconstruction // Journal of Asian History, 19 (1): 8–21. 1985
      Khalil ʿAthamina. Non-Arab Regiments and Private Militias during the Umayyād Period // Arabica, T. 45, Fasc. 3 (1998), pp. 347-378
      B.J. Beshir. Fatimid Military Organization // Der Islam. Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 37–56
      Andrew C. S. Peacock. Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia // Iran & the Caucasus,  Vol. 9, No. 2 (2005), pp. 205-230
      Jere L. Bacharach. African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: The Cases of Iraq (869-955) and Egypt (868-1171) //  International Journal of Middle East Studies,  Vol. 13, No. 4 (Nov., 1981), pp. 471-495
      Deborah Tor. Privatized Jihad and public order in the pre-Seljuq period: The role of the Mutatawwi‘a // Iranian Studies, 38:4, 555-573
      Гуринов Е.А. , Нечитайлов М.В. Фатимидская армия в крестовых походах 1096 - 1171 гг. // "Воин" (Новый) №10. 2010. Сс. 9-19
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      Kennedy, H.N. The Military Revolution and the Early Islamic State // Noble ideals and bloody realities. Warfare in the middle ages. P. 197-208. 2006.
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      P.S. Большую часть работ Николя в список вносить не стал - его и так все знают. Пишет хорошо, читать все. Часто пространные главы про армиям мусульманского Леванта есть в литературе по Крестовым походам. Хоть в R.C. Smail. Crusading Warfare 1097-1193, хоть в Steven Tibble. The Crusader Armies: 1099-1187 (!)...
    • Северо-восточная Индия.
      By hoplit
      Апатани.
      С длинными копьями. Где-то 5-6 метров?

      Щит и копьё. Чем не пельта?

      На части фото копья не такие длинные.



      А вот тут, кажется, явно разнокалиберные.

       
      The Nagas. Hill Peoples of Northeast India