hoplit

Пушки на палубах. Европа в 15-17 век.

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The Naval tracts of Sir William Monson. In six books. Edited with a commentary drawn from the state papers and original sources by M. Oppenheim.

Издание 1902-14 гг. в 5 томах. Сам трактат был написан в первой половине 17-го столетия.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

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Битва при Соленте. 1545 год. Cowdray engravings - копия 18 века с оригинала, созданного между  1545 и 1548 гг.

 

Второй Солент.jpg

Солент 1545.jpg

French.jpg

the_english_fleet.jpg

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Просто для памяти - в 1530-е стоимость корпуса классической галеры 2250-2500 дукатов. Если не путаю - с мачтами и веслами. В 1550-е 50-фунтовое (фунты "легкие", около 300 грамм) куршейное орудие стоило порядка 450 дукатов при весе более 2 тонн. А ведь часто имелось еще несколько орудий меньшего калибра...

В те же 1530-е месяц активной эксплуатации галеры обходился в 550-600 дукатов. 

Получается, что в эпоху Превезы - сначала нужно выложить порядка 2300 дукатов за галеру. Потом - от нескольких сотен до 1000 дукатов за артиллерию. А активное использование в течение одного сезона (чаще всего июнь-сентябрь) это еще одна цена галеры...

Уважаемый galea-galley как-то упоминал, что обычный срок службы для галеры был 6-8 лет, хотя это не железное правило - бывало и 15. Насколько понимаю - срок сильно зависел от условий эксплуатации и изначального качества постройки. И если галеру активно "гонять", то даже за 6 лет стоимость эксплуатации цену постройки обойдет в разы легко и непринужденно...

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Frederic Chapin Lane. Venetian Naval Architecture about 1550 // The Mariner's Mirror, 20:1, 24-49. 1934

Anderson, R.C. Italian Naval Architecture about 1445 // Mariner's Mirror 11: 135–163. 1925

Auguste Jal. Fabbrica di galere // Archlologie navale, 2 vols. (Paris, 1840)

 

Об источниках.

Цитата

Fabrica di galere, or Libro di Marineria

Anonimous, c. 1410


The Libro di Marineria has been partially published in the mid 19th century by Auguste Jal under the title Fabrica di Galere, by which it is now better known. It is a Venetian manuscript dated to the mid 16th century, with 123 folios, containing texts of several authors, some of which can be dated to around 1410. It is now deposited in Florence, in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, codex Magliabecchiano, XIX.7. 

Plentiful in comprehensive pen and ink drawings, it covers a galley of Flanders (folios 1-13), a galley of Romania with a digression on sail-making (14-25v), a light galley (26-32), a lateen rigged ship (33-36),  and a square rigged ship (37-49).  It presents a formula for calculating displacements - perhaps the oldest recorded - and a description of a whaler (ballanier) as built by those of the West (quelli de ponente).  There follows a section on rigging and spars (51-64v), sail-making (65-72v), and again the galley of Flanders (73-75v), the galley of Romania (75v-folium number omitted in the publication available), and a light galley (folium numbers omitted). 

The next section of the manuscript is dedicated to smaller craft and contains a mention of the great Greek shipwright Theodoro Baxon, whose light galleys were praised as being among the best ever built in the Arsenal (in 1407 eight of Baxon's galleys were ordered by the Senate to be set aside to serve in emergencies and to be copied as models since Theodoro was not a young man anymore, and there was a fear that he may not have taught everything to his Italian fellow workers).

The manuscript then presents the measurements for a falchoni to be made in the Arsenal (folium numbers omitted), followed by the prices of ironwork, timber, oars, and other equipment (folium number omitted -87v).  The last folios are dedicated to the design of rigging for square rigged ships (88v-100v), sail-making (101-122v), and information on the tides (122v-123).

 

Guido Candiani. The race to the big calibres during the first war of Morea and Sigismondo Alberghetti's guns of new invention // Ships and Guns: The Sea Ordnance in Venice and in Europe between the 15th and the 17th Centuries. 2011

C. S. Goldingham. The Navy under Henry VII // The English Historical Review,  Vol. 33, No. 132 (Oct., 1918), pp. 472-488.

Frederic C. Lane. Diet and Wages of Seamen in the Early Fourteenth Century // Venice and History: The Collected Papers of Frederic C. Lane 1966

John F. Guilmartin. The Logistics of Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century: The Spanish Perspective // Feeding Mars: Logistics in Western Warfare from the Middle Ages to the Present. 2019

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Violet Barbour. Dutch and English Merchant Shipping in the Seventeenth Century // The Economic History Review. Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jan., 1930), pp. 261-290

Цитата

The great ship was well described by the Venetian Secretary in London in a letter to the Doge dated November 12 (N.S.), 1655:  

"There has lately been invented, a build of enormous ships, carrying as many as 120 brass guns, & which without exaggeration may be termed moving fortresses, and floating garrisons, for there are from 7 to 8 hundred men on board of each, nor would one of these vessels single handed be afraid of  200 light gallies":

Venetian Transcripts (Public Record Office) 37, No.  19.  

Цитата

Indeed, the greater part of the merchant marine consisted of vessels of less than a hundred tons burthen.

...

From a memorandum of the English ships that cleared for France between September  29, 1669, and September  29, 1670, we learn that  106  ships, averaging  54.2  tons, cleared from London (omitting those in ballast); while from the outports  802  ships (including those in ballast) averaged 36.5 tons ... The Bristol Port Books for the year  1670-1  show that the average burthen of  124 English-built ships clearing from that port was 47.8 tons; the average burthen of the 160 English-built ships entering the port of Bristol was 43.1 tons ... At the close of the eighteenth century the average tonnage of English merchantmen was only 100 tons

...

In the navy of Charles II the most powerful ships, third to first rates, ranged from  900  to 1,400  tons, and thus greatly excelled in size the largest merchantmen, which might have a capacity of from 400 to 800 tons. But between the King's fourth- and fifth-rates and these large merchantmen there was little difference in architectural plan, in dimensions, or in the size of timbers used. The man-of-war, if she were not flying the King's jack, might be identified not by her shape, her rigging, or the number of her ports, but by the decoration lavished upon her.

Цитата

The result of all these economies and advantages was that for ships of equivalent burthen, building was cheaper in Holland by a third or a half than it was in England. In 1669 a flute could be built in Holland for £800 that in England would cost  £1,300.  A larger ship might cost  £ 1,400 in Holland, but  £2,400 in England. In 1676 the building of an English merchantman of  250  tons would cost £7 9s. 6d. per ton.  In that same year a London merchant purchased a 200-ton flute at Saardam for  9,050  guilders, or about  £4  10s. per ton. In England building was cheaper in the outports than in London, but in very few of the outports could materials be found for building large ships.

Цитата

The economical operation of Dutch ships was affirmed by more than a century of testimony. This was a matter determined by the number of seamen carried, the figure of their wages, and the cost of victualling. The simple rigging of the flute and the absence of guns made possible her navigation by a small crew. "For example," explained Keymor in  1620,  

"though an English Ship of two hundred tun, and a Holland Ship, . . . of the same burthen be at Danske, or any other place beyond the Seas, or in England, they do serve the Merchant better cheap by one hundred pounds in his freight than we can, by reason he hath but nine or ten Marriners, and we near thirty; thus he saveth twenty mens meat and wages in a voyage."

Very similar is an admission by Sir William Monson in the reign of Charles I; a merchants' petition printed in  1659  is of the same tenor;  so also Roger Coke in 1670; so also the author of Britannia Languens in 1680. From French Observations sur le commerce du Nord  of the year 1769 we learn that a Dutch galliot of 200 tons could navigate with seven or eight men; one of 300 to 400 tons with sixteen to eighteen men, while French ships of these burthens would carry double the number

Цитата

The advantages gained by cheap and adaptable shipbuilding, and cheap and careful navigation, were summed up in the lowest freight rates in Europe, and the most extensive and efficient merchant marine. In years when both England  and the Republic were at peace, Dutch rates would be  1/2  to 1/3 lower than English for the same voyage.

 

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      - Craig S. Keener. An Ethnohistorical Analysis of Iroquois Assault Tactics Used against Fortified Settlements of the Northeast in the Seventeenth Century.
      - Leroy V. Eid. A Kind of : Running Fight: Indian Battlefield Tactics in the Late Eighteenth Century.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Huron vs. Iroquois: A Case Study in Inter-Tribal Warfare.
      - Jennifer Birch. Coalescence and Conflict in Iroquoian Ontario // Archaeological Review from Cambridge - 25.1 - 2010
      - William J. Hunt, Jr. Ethnicity and Firearms in the Upper Missouri Bison-Robe Trade: An Examination of Weapon Preference and Utilization at Fort Union Trading Post N.H.S., North Dakota.
      - Patrick M. Malone. Changing Military Technology Among the Indians of Southern New England, 1600-1677.
      - David H. Dye. War Paths, Peace Paths An Archaeology of Cooperation and Conflict in Native Eastern North America.
      - Wayne Van Horne. Warfare in Mississippian Chiefdoms.
      - Wayne E. Lee. The Military Revolution of Native North America: Firearms, Forts, and Polities // Empires and indigenes: intercultural alliance, imperial expansion, and warfare in the early modern world. Edited by Wayne E. Lee. 2011
      - Steven LeBlanc. Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. 1999.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. A History of Research on Warfare in Anthropology // American Anthropologist. Vol. 101, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 794-805
      - Lee, Wayne. Fortify, Fight, or Flee: Tuscarora and Cherokee Defensive Warfare and Military Culture Adaptation // The Journal of Military History, Volume 68, Number 3, July 2004, pp. 713-770
      - Wayne E. Lee. Peace Chiefs and Blood Revenge: Patterns of Restraint in Native American Warfare, 1500-1800 // The Journal of Military History. Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jul., 2007), pp. 701-741
       
      - Weapons, Weaponry and Man: In Memoriam Vytautas Kazakevičius (Archaeologia Baltica, Vol. 8). 2007
      - The Horse and Man in European Antiquity: Worldview, Burial Rites, and Military and Everyday Life (Archaeologia Baltica, Vol. 11). 2009
      - The Taking and Displaying of Human Body Parts as Trophies by Amerindians. 2007
      - The Ethics of Anthropology and Amerindian Research. Reporting on Environmental Degradation
      and Warfare. 2012
      - Empires and Indigenes: Intercultural Alliance, Imperial Expansion, and Warfare in the Early Modern World. 2011
      - A. Gat. War in Human Civilization.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Killing of Captured Enemies: A Cross‐cultural Study.
      - Azar Gat. The Causes and Origins of "Primitive Warfare": Reply to Ferguson.
      - Azar Gat. The Pattern of Fighting in Simple, Small-Scale, Prestate Societies.
      - Lawrence H. Keeley. War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage.
      - Keith F. Otterbein. Warfare and Its Relationship to the Origins of Agriculture.
      - Jonathan Haas. Warfare and the Evolution of Culture.
      - М. Дэйви. Эволюция войн.
      - War in the Tribal Zone Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare Edited by R. Brian Ferguson and Neil L. Whitehead.
      - I.J.N. Thorpe. Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare.
      - Антропология насилия. Новосибирск. 2010.
      - Jean Guilaine and Jean Zammit. The origins of war: violence in prehistory. 2005. Французское издание было в 2001 году - le Sentier de la Guerre: Visages de la violence préhistorique.
      - Warfare in Bronze Age Society. 2018
      - Ian Armit. Headhunting and the Body in Iron Age Europe. 2012

    • Мусульманские армии Средних веков
      By hoplit
      Maged S. A. Mikhail. Notes on the "Ahl al-Dīwān": The Arab-Egyptian Army of the Seventh through the Ninth Centuries C.E. // Journal of the American Oriental Society,  Vol. 128, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 2008), pp. 273-284
      David Ayalon. Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army // Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
      David Ayalon. Aspects of the Mamlūk Phenomenon // Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East
      Bethany J. Walker. Militarization to Nomadization: The Middle and Late Islamic Periods // Near Eastern Archaeology,  Vol. 62, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. 202-232
      David Ayalon. The Mamlūks of the Seljuks: Islam's Military Might at the Crossroads //  Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Nov., 1996), pp. 305-333
      David Ayalon. The Auxiliary Forces of the Mamluk Sultanate // Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East. Volume 65, Issue 1 (Jan 1988)
      C. E. Bosworth. The Armies of the Ṣaffārids // Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,  Vol. 31, No. 3 (1968), pp. 534-554
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      R. Stephen Humphreys. The Emergence of the Mamluk Army //  Studia Islamica,  No. 45 (1977), pp. 67-99
      R. Stephen Humphreys. The Emergence of the Mamluk Army (Conclusion) // Studia Islamica,  No. 46 (1977), pp. 147-182
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      Nicolle D. Fighting for the Faith: the many fronts of Crusade and Jihad, 1000-1500 AD. 2007
      Patricia Crone. The ‘Abbāsid Abnā’ and Sāsānid Cavalrymen // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 8 (1998)
      D.G. Tor. The Mamluks in the military of the pre-Seljuq Persianate dynasties // Iran,  Vol. 46 (2008), pp. 213-225 (!)
      J. W. Jandora. Developments in Islamic Warfare: The Early Conquests // Studia Islamica,  No. 64 (1986), pp. 101-113
      John W. Jandora. The Battle of the Yarmuk: A Reconstruction // Journal of Asian History, 19 (1): 8–21. 1985
      Khalil ʿAthamina. Non-Arab Regiments and Private Militias during the Umayyād Period // Arabica, T. 45, Fasc. 3 (1998), pp. 347-378
      B. J. Beshir. Fatimid Military Organization // Der Islam. Volume 55, Issue 1, Pages 37–56
      Andrew C. S. Peacock. Nomadic Society and the Seljūq Campaigns in Caucasia // Iran & the Caucasus,  Vol. 9, No. 2 (2005), pp. 205-230
      Jere L. Bacharach. African Military Slaves in the Medieval Middle East: The Cases of Iraq (869-955) and Egypt (868-1171) //  International Journal of Middle East Studies,  Vol. 13, No. 4 (Nov., 1981), pp. 471-495
      Deborah Tor. Privatized Jihad and public order in the pre-Seljuq period: The role of the Mutatawwi‘a // Iranian Studies, 38:4, 555-573
      Гуринов Е.А. , Нечитайлов М.В. Фатимидская армия в крестовых походах 1096 - 1171 гг. // "Воин" (Новый) №10. 2010. Сс. 9-19
      Нечитайлов М.В. Мусульманское завоевание Испании. Армии мусульман // Крылов С.В., Нечитайлов М.В. Мусульманское завоевание Испании. Saarbrücken: LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2015.
      Нечитайлов М.В., Гуринов Е.А. Армия Саладина (1171-1193 гг.) (1) // Воин № 15. 2011. Сс. 13-25.
      Нечитайлов М.В., Шестаков Е.В. Андалусские армии: от Амиридов до Альморавидов (1009-1090 гг.) (1) // Воин №12. 2010. 
      Kennedy, H.N. The Military Revolution and the Early Islamic State // Noble ideals and bloody realities. Warfare in the middle ages. P. 197-208. 2006.
      Kennedy, H.N. Military pay and the economy of the early Islamic state // Historical research LXXV (2002), pp. 155–69.
      Kennedy, H.N. The Financing of the Military in the Early Islamic State // The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East. Vol. III, ed. A. Cameron (Princeton, Darwin 1995), pp. 361–78.
      H.A.R. Gibb. The Armies of Saladin // Studies on the Civilization of Islam. 1962
      David Neustadt. The Plague and Its Effects upon the Mamlûk Army // The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. No. 1 (Apr., 1946), pp. 67-73
      Ulrich Haarmann. The Sons of Mamluks as Fief-holders in Late Medieval Egypt // Land tenure and social transformation in the Middle East. 1984
      H. Rabie. The Size and Value of the Iqta in Egypt 564-741 A.H./l 169-1341 A.D. // Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East: from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day. 1970
      Yaacov Lev. Infantry in Muslim armies during the Crusades // Logistics of warfare in the Age of the Crusades. 2002. Pp. 185-208
      Yaacov Lev. Army, Regime, and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358-487/968-1094 // International Journal of Middle East Studies. Vol. 19, No. 3 (Aug., 1987), pp. 337-365
      E. Landau-Tasseron. Features of the Pre-Conquest Muslim Army in the Time of Mu ̨ammad // The Byzantine and Early Islamic near East. Vol. III: States, Resources and Armies. 1995. Pp. 299-336
      Shihad al-Sarraf. Mamluk Furusiyah Literature and its Antecedents // Mamluk Studies Review. vol. 8/4 (2004): 141–200.
      Rabei G. Khamisy Baybarsʼ Strategy of War against the Franks // Journal of Medieval Military History. Volume XVI. 2018
      Manzano Moreno. El asentamiento y la organización de los yund-s sirios en al-Andalus // Al-Qantara: Revista de estudios arabes, vol. XIV, fasc. 2 (1993), p. 327-359
       
      Kennedy, Hugh. The Armies of the Caliphs : Military and Society in the Early Islamic State Warfare and History. 2001
      Blankinship, Khalid Yahya. The End of the Jihâd State : The Reign of Hisham Ibn Àbd Al-Malik and the Collapse of the Umayyads. 1994.
      Patricia Crone. Slaves on Horses. The Evolution of the Islamic Polity. 1980
      Hamblin W. J. The Fatimid Army During the Early Crusades. 1985
      Daniel Pipes. Slave Soldiers and Islam: The Genesis of a Military System. 1981
       
      P.S. Большую часть работ Николя в список вносить не стал - его и так все знают. Пишет хорошо, читать все. Часто пространные главы про армиям мусульманского Леванта есть в литературе по Крестовым походам. Хоть в R.C. Smail. Crusading Warfare 1097-1193, хоть в Steven Tibble. The Crusader Armies: 1099-1187 (!)...
    • Порох во Вьетнаме.
      By hoplit
      - Sun Laichen. Chinese Military Technology and Dai Viet c. 1390–1497. 2003.
      - Sun Laichen. Military Technology Transfers from Ming China and the Emergence of Northern Mainland Southeast Asia (c. 1390-1527). 2003.
      - Sun Laichen. Chinese-style Firearms in Dai Viet (Vietnam). The Archaeological Evidence. 2008.
      - Sun Laichen. Chinese-style gunpowder weapons in Southeast Asia. Focusing on archeological evidence. 2011
      - George Dutton. Flaming Tiger, Burning Dragon: Elements of Early Modern Vietnamese Military Technology. 2003.
      -  Frédéric Mantienne. The Transfer of Western Military Technology to Vietnam in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries: The Case of the NguyễN. 2003.
      - John K. Whitmore. The two great campaigns of the Hong-duc era (1470–97) in Dai Viet. 2004.
      - Victor Lieberman. Some Comparative Thoughts on Premodern Southeast Asian Warfare. 2003.
       
       
      -  Michael W Charney. Southeast Asian Warfare, 1300-1900. 2004.
      - Warring Societies of Pre-Colonial Southeast Asia: Local Cultures of Conflict within a Regional Context. 2017
    • Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      By hoplit
      Просмотреть файл Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо). Раздел "Официальные бумаги". Сс. 279. М.: Восточная литература. 2017.
      Автор hoplit Добавлен 30.04.2020 Категория Корея
    • Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо).
      By hoplit
      Полное собрание документов Ли Сунсина (Ли Чхунму гон чонсо). Раздел "Официальные бумаги". Сс. 279. М.: Восточная литература. 2017.