hoplit

"Примитивная война".

55 posts in this topic

К "вычислениям по среднему".

Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri: Sioux, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows

Разные группы сиу. - 2360 палаток, 12 групп. Делятся на янктонов и тетонов. Уже на этом пункте - неравно. Тетонов 7 групп (1630), янктонов - 5 (730 типи). Дальше - больше.

izobrazhenie_2021-10-10_005131.png.83a72

izobrazhenie_2021-10-10_005211.png.e33c9

И что тут даст "подсчет по среднему"? В крупнейшей группе (брюле-сиу) - 500 палаток, немногим меньше, чем в пяти группах янктон-сиу вместе взятых. Можно написать, кончено, что "3/4 сиу жили в группах размером 200 +/- 100 человек". Если точную роспись на руках иметь, да.

Автор считает для 1833 года пять человек на тип, в 1850-е не было и четырех. Для арикара он ранее считал 4,5 человека на типи.

 

 

izobrazhenie_2021-10-10_010120.png.60efa

Глава о кроу целиком.  

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George Chaworth Musters. At Home with the Patagonians A Year's Wanderings over Untrodden Ground from the Straits of Magellan to the Rio Negro. 1871

Разборки между патагонцами.

Цитата

The following morning, September 2, we were sitting quietly round the fire discussing a breakfast of boiled ostrich prepared by the lady of the house, when suddenly the clash of knives was heard, and we saw two Indians, destitute of mantles, with naked swords in their hands, run across from Camillo’s to Crimè’s toldo. In a minute everything was in an uproar; arms were produced, guns and revolvers loaded, and some of the Indians equipped themselves in coats of mail, and others, with the assistance of the women, padded themselves about the chest and upper part of the body with thick blankets and corconillas or saddle-cloths. Knowing what was about to happen, the women, and with them all the Chilian deserters except one, beat a retreat to a safe distance from the toldos. Having assumed my arms, and feeling thoroughly mystified as to the real cause of this excitement, I went to Camillo’s toldo, where the scene explained itself. He was lying on his bed dead, with a frightful gash in his side, having been murdered by Cuastro, one of the Indians whom we had seen running to Crimè’s tents. On issuing from the toldo Casimiro met me, and asked for a revolver, as he had no firearms, and I lent him one accordingly. The Indians showed by their changed countenances all the fury of fight; their very complexions seemed ghastly, and their eyes glared and rolled, seeming to see blood. The two opposing parties, the Southern Indians — friends of Crimè, who was a cousin of Cuastro — and Orkeke’s and Casimiro’s people or the Northern party, were soon ranged in open line at some twenty yards distance from each other. Cuastro was conspicuous by his tunic or ‘buff coat’ of hide studded with silver, while his only weapon was a single sword or rapier. The fight commenced with an irregular discharge of guns and revolvers, which lasted a few minutes, till some of the Northern or Orkeke’s Indians, led by Casimiro, closed up, and a hand to hand contest with swords and lances took place, resulting in the death of Cuastro and the severe wounding of two or three Southern Indians. The Northerns then drew off to reload, and were about to renew the action, when Tankelow proposed a truce, which was accepted on the understanding that both parties were to march at once in the same direction. The women and children were then recalled from the bushes whither they had retired, the horses brought up, and the dead buried. The Tehuelches’ lance is entirely different to that of the Araucanos or Pampas, and is only used when fighting on foot; it consists of a heavy shaft eighteen feet in length, at the extremity of which a blade is fixed about eighteen inches long, constituting a most formidable weapon in the hands of an expert Indian. Cayuke, whom I have before mentioned, in this fight was armed with the lance, and ran Cuastro through the body, although protected by his mail and endeavouring to parry the point with a sword. This Cuastro was a brave man; when dying, with several bullets in his body, and several lance thrusts, he sprang up to his full height and called out, ‘I die as I have lived — no cacique orders me;’ his wife then rushed up to him crying and sobbing, but he fell down dead at the same moment. Casimiro had a narrow escape; he parried a blow of a sword with what may be termed the slack part of his mantle, but if the blow had caught him on the head, as intended, it would have ended his career then and there. The casualties were a wound in Crimè’s leg, and a lance thrust clean through the thigh of Hummums, a young Indian, who seemed to care very little about it. The fight originated out of a vendetta between Cuastro and Camillo, the latter having some years before caused the death of a member of the family of the former, who had on a previous occasion endeavoured to avenge it on Camillo, and he had only attached himself to our party, in company with Crimè, in order to obtain an opportunity of assassinating Camillo. This Cuastro had been suspected on good grounds of making away with Mendoza, the Argentine sent from Buenos Ayres in company with Casimiro, and who mysteriously disappeared; and he had certainly, when under the influence of rum, at Santa Cruz, murdered his own wife Juana, a daughter of Casimiro, so that brave as he was he had richly deserved the fate he met with.

Тут занятно, что Мастерс спокойно называет кожаный доспех (tunic or ‘buff coat’ of hide studded with silver) -  "кольчугой" (mail).

Цитата

We descended to the flats, and crossed the river, on the- 150 - banks of which ‘Paja’ or Pampa grass grew in abundance, as well as the bamboo-like canes from which Araucanian Indians make their lance shafts, and a plant called by the Chilians ‘Talka,’ the stalk of which, resembling rhubarb, is refreshing and juicy. 

Цитата

The arms of the Tehuelches consist of gun or revolver, sword or dagger, a long heavy lance, used only by dismounted Indians, and altogether different to the light lance of Araucanian and Pampa horsemen, and the bola perdida or single ball, so called because once thrown it is not picked up again: this weapon is quickly constructed; a sharp-pointed stone is taken, covered with hide except the point, which is left out, and a thong of raw hide about a yard long is attached, with a knot made in the end to prevent it slipping from the hand whilst whirling it round previous to throwing it at an enemy. Before the introduction of firearms the bola perdida was the original weapon of the Tehuelches, and is even at the present day a most deadly missile in their hands.

I am aware that Pigafetta, the historian of Magellan’s voyage, describes the ancestors of these Indians as using bows and arrows, but I am inclined to think that this must have applied either to a tribe of Fuegians or a party of Pampas living in the valley of the Rio Negro. It is certain that no ancient flint arrowheads are met with south of the Rio Negro, where they abound; also that there is but little, if any, wood nearer than the Cordillera suitable for bows, and it is reasonable to suppose that previous to the introduction of horses the Indian migrations were confined to a smaller area; besides, although no arrowheads are found in the interior of Patagonia proper, ancient bolas are not unfrequently met with. These are highly valued by the Indians, and differ from those in present use by having grooves cut round them, and by their larger size and greater weight. The introduction and diffusion of firearms has almost superseded the use of defensive armour; but chain suits, and hide surcoats studded thickly with silver, are still — as instances before given show — possessed and employed: and before going into battle the warriors are often padded like cricketers, corconillas or saddle-cloths, and ponchos being employed to form a covering, the folds of which will turn a sword cut or lance thrust.

Цитата

The following morning at daylight all mounted their best horses, and forming into column of six proceeded, with the lancers of the warriors at our head, towards the toldos situated in a valley running at right angles to the one we had rested in the previous night. On arriving in sight of Cheoeque’s ancestral halls, we observed the Araucanians or Manzaneros forming into line and manœuvring about half a mile distant; we approached to within 300 yards, and then forming into open line to display our whole force (my proposal of hiding a reserve behind an eminence having been overruled), awaited the course of events. Thus we remained about half an hour watching the Manzaneros, who presented a fine appearance, dressed in bright-coloured ponchos and armed with their long lances; they manœuvred in four squadrons, each with a leader — from whose lance fluttered a small pennonmoving with disciplined precision, and forming line, wheeling, and keeping their distances in a way that would not have discredited regular cavalry.

 

Описание арауканского кавалерийского копья

Цитата

All our business, both commercial and political, being concluded, and the farewell banquet over, Cheoeque distributed gifts of horses, &c., among the Tehuelches in return for the numerous presents he had received from them. As a set-off to a set of gold studs, he presented me with one of the peculiar lances always used by his people, about fifteen to eighteen feet long and very light, the shaft being made of a cane, which grows in the Cordillera forests, strongly resembling a bamboo, and of the thickness of the butt of a stout pike rod. This present, by the way, caused me to commit a breach of etiquette. I placed it leaning against the toldo, and was at once requested to remove it, as it was a sign of war, though whether it was regarded as a challenge or an omen was not clear; but I was instructed that the lance must either be laid down on, or planted upright in the ground. Another lance was also bestowed on Casimiro, besides numerous horses and other valuables.

 

Цитата

Englishmen are apt to suppose that because they possess good weapons, rifles and revolvers, and are able and ready to use them, they can resist an Indian attack; but the whole system of their warfare consists in sudden surprises. They secretly collect their forces, and waiting at a safe distance during the night, come in at the early dawn, and perhaps the unsuspicious settler, going to the corral or looking for his horses, observes in the distance what appears to be a troop of horses, driven, according to custom, by one or two mounted men; these approach unchallenged, but in a second every horse displays an armed rider, shouting his war-cry. They then spread out, as if to encircle the game, thus presenting no front to the rifles of their opponents, and dash down lance in hand; and whilst some secure the animals, others set fire to the dwellings and carry off the women — if there are any — captives. In some cases they kill the men, but generally only when much resistance is offered.

Although their chief object in warfare is to carry off cattle and captives, the Indians will at times fight desperately, regardless of odds, and show little or no fear of death; and the survivors will never leave their wounded or killed on the field. The Indians in the service of the Government, mustering about fifty lances, and residing chiefly on the south side, are commanded by a man named Linares, previously mentioned as living at San Xaviel; he receives the pay and rations of an officer in the army, of what rank I do not know, and all his men regularly receive pay and rations. These are supposed to act as gendarmerie; but although Linares and his four brothers are probably to be depended on, I doubt very much if the rank and file could be trusted to remain true to their colours in the event of a united raid taking place, such as that organised by Lenquetrou.

 

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Военные упражнения у манданов, описанные Джорджем Кэтлином.

Цитата

Of these, one of the most pleasing is the sham-fight and sham scalp-dance of the Mandan boys, which is a part of their regular exercise, and constitutes a material branch of their education. During the pleasant mornings of the summer, the little boys between the age of seven and fifteen are called out, to the number of several hundred, and being divided into two companies, each of which is headed by some experienced warrior, who leads them on, in the character of a teacher; they are led out into the prairie at sunrise, where this curious discipline is regularly taught them (plate 57). Their bodies are naked, and each one has a little bow in his left hand and a number of arrows made of large spears of grass, which are harmless in their effects. Each one has also a little belt or girdle around his waist, in which he carries a knife made of a piece of wood and equally harmless — on the tops of their heads are slightly attached small tufts of grass, which answer as scalps, and in this plight, they follow the dictates of their experienced leaders, who lead them through the judicious evolutions of Indian warfare — of feints — of retreats — of attacks — and at last to a general fight. Many manoeuvres are gone through, and eventually they are brought up face to face, within fifteen or twenty feet of each other, with their leaders at their head stimulating them on. Their bows are bent upon each other and their missiles flying, whilst they are dodging and fending them off.

If any one is struck with an arrow on any vital part of his body, he is obliged to fall, and his adversary rushes up to him, places his foot upon him, and snatching from his belt his wooden knife, grasps hold of his victim's scalp-lock of grass, and making a feint at it with his wooden knife, twitches it off and puts it into his belt, and enters again into the ranks and front of battle.

This mode of training generally lasts an hour or more in the morning, and is performed on an empty stomach, affording them a rigid and wholesome exercise, whilst they are instructed in the important science of war. Some five or six miles of ground are run over during these evolutions, giving suppleness to their limbs and strength to their muscles, which last and benefit them through life.

After this exciting exhibition is ended, they all return to their village, where the chiefs and braves pay profound attention to their vaunting, and applaud them for their artifice and valour.

Those who have taken scalps then step forward, brandishing them and making their boast as they enter into the scalp-dance (in which they are also instructed by their leaders or teachers), jumping and yelling — brandishing their scalps, and reciting their sanguinary deeds, to the great astonishment of their tender aged sweethearts, who are gazing with wonder upon them.

illustrationsofm01catl_0_0209.thumb.jpg.

Тут - тот самый поединок Матотопы с вождем шайенов.

 

Для сравнения - "игра в войну" у казачат в "Уральцах".

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Селькнамы (одна из групп огнеземельцев), около 1900-го года. Стрелы с наконечниками из стекла.

The National Museum of the American Indian. Вот тут.

142402_1000.jpg.9a612bb5d37a20324eb55a2c

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Вот к этому вот.

Цитата

Francisco de Aguilar,  who  was a stronger and more robust man than the others, and being such had defended himself better than the rest, was still alive though he had two arrow wounds, which passed through both  thighs, and many blows over the head and the whole body, which they had given him with bows, because when he closed with the Indians they had used all their arrows, and seeing him alone, they grasped their bows with both hands and gave him such hard blows that they knocked his shield to pieces, only the handles being left.

В Notes on the Hidatsa Indians based on data recorded by the late Gilbert L. Wilson // Anthropological papers of the AMNH ; v. 56, pt. 2. 1979.

Цитата

Wood, elkhorn, or Rocky Mountain sheep horn were used to fashion bows; they were made as needed, any time of the year, summer or winter; their construction was not hindered by seasons or by any ceremonial strictures. Wooden bows were made of young ash, chokecherry, wild plum, cedar, elm, and a species the Hidatsa called white wood. Ash was preferred principally because of the belief that an ash bow, especially when sinew-backed, would not only withstand a heavy blow without breaking but was, moreover, strong enough to use as a club in an emergency. When put to use in this secondary function as a club, the bow was usually braced; the bowstring, although strong, had a tendency to break the blow and thus prevented the wood from fracturing. Bows made of ash were the chief dependence in war and hunting.

 

Насколько понял - луки у хидатса и лакота еще и асимметричные.

Цитата

To give the upper arm of the bow a distinctly greater bend and more resiliency than its lower arm, which was relatively stiffer, it was shaved somewhat thinner. Further, to accommodate its more decided arch the upper arm of the bow was made somewhat longer than its lower arm. As a consequence, when braced and measured on the taut bowstring both arms of the bow would be equal in length. The bow handle was placed in the middle of the braced bow. The main objective was, of course, to assure the steadiest and straightest flight of an arrow. A bow with its upper and lower arms of equal length, as in the English bow, would have been considered useless by the Hidatsa.

Цитата

A Teton-Sioux, when questioned, explained that a bow with its arms equally bent cast an arrow sluggishly and on a dead level; one with a greater arched upper arm cast the arrow with more speed and on a higher curve. The upper arm of a Japanese bow is longer and more arched than the lower. To Wolf-chief's great surprise, Wilson outshot him in a contest.

 

Цитата

According to Wolf-chief, as recorded in July 1911, a bow of Rocky Mountain sheep horn, or bighorn, was considered by the Hidatsa to be more valuable than one made of elkhorn and with 10 arrows cost a good horse, during a period when horses were scarce. Bighorn bows had a rapid cast. They were used both for warfare and the chase. However, they were chiefly valued by young men for their decorative qualities and, like the elkhorn bows, were treasured more for display in the village than
for practical use
. A bighorn bow was white on its inner curve; like the elkhorn bow previously described, the outer curve was reinforced with sinew. As was customary on the elkhorn bow, a decorative piece of quillwork or an enemy scalp was frequently hung on the tip of the upper arm of the bighorn bow. Sometimes red stripes were painted on bows to signify, "With this bow I struck an enemy. "

Цитата

Girls were not taught to use bows and arrows; boys, however, began to shoot when about three years old

Цитата

In battle, at close quarters with the enemy, when shooting rapidly was urgent, two arrows were held in the teeth, feathers to the right; a
third arrow was held in the left hand, against the back and slightly athwart the bow, with the feathers downward and visible below the hand, slightly to the left; a fourth arrow lay on the bowstring. Sometimes, a fifth arrow was added to the one grasped in the left hand. 

Цитата

A very brave man, or sometimes two such men, who had no fear of a close approach to the enemy when engaged in battle, always found it easy, if his arrows were all spent, to have his quiver replenished with arrows in recognition of his valor by the other members of the war party.

 

К теме юми-яри.

Цитата

Bows were sometimes fitted with flint heads, placed at the upper end of the bow. In relatively modem times 4-inch steel heads were inserted in the split upper end of the bow and firmly bound with sinew and glue. These flint heads were larger than arrowheads but smaller than spearheads, which were about 4 inches long.


Bows so fitted with flint or steel heads were carried by the young men of the village when bent on courting. They were also embellished with eagle plumes and dried birdskins. However, such bows were also carried on war parties and might be used, like a lance, as a weapon of last resort after a warrior had shot all his arrows. Wolf-chief was in doubt as to whether the Hidatsa regarded the spearhead bow as useful a weapon as a coup stick. Apparently he never heard that anyone had ever been slain with such a bow. As a child, Red-feather counted coup on an enemy with such a bow and afterward carried it in the dance with
the point painted red to represent blood. All the bows of this type that he observed in his boyhood were carried only in ceremonies and were definitely not fighting weapons. Red-feather also added that these bows were bound to the ceremonial bundles of their owners, and were in this way kept sacred.


Three officers of the Rough-woods society carried spearhead bows. They were known as "carriers of big arrowhead bows." Packs-wolf also described this weapon. If other carriers were elected, the bows passed to them.

Цитата

Culbertson (1851, p. 117) mentions bows with spears attached to the ends as observed by him among the Arikara. Cf. also Will and Spinden (1906, p. 113) for a description of the Mandan bow lance.

 

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      David Nicolle. The Zangid bridge of Ǧazīrat ibn ʿUmar (ʿAyn Dīwār/Cizre): a New Look at the carved panel of an armoured horseman // Bulletin d’études orientales, LXII. 2014
      David Nicolle. The Iconography of a Military Elite: Military Figures on an Early Thirteenth-Century Candlestick. В трех частях. 2014-19
      Patricia Crone. The ‘Abbāsid Abnā’ and Sāsānid Cavalrymen // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 8 (1998)
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      P.S. Большую часть работ Николя в список вносить не стал - его и так все знают. Пишет хорошо, читать все. Часто пространные главы про армиям мусульманского Леванта есть в литературе по Крестовым походам. Хоть в R.C. Smail. Crusading Warfare 1097-1193, хоть в Steven Tibble. The Crusader Armies: 1099-1187 (!)...
    • Северо-восточная Индия.
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      Апатани.
      С длинными копьями. Где-то 5-6 метров?

      Щит и копьё. Чем не пельта?

      На части фото копья не такие длинные.



      А вот тут, кажется, явно разнокалиберные.

       
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      Это не домыслы досужих журналюг. Это карты боевых действий и учебные материалы военных, опубликованные в свободном доступе.