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Чжан Гэда

Искусство и материальная культура Тайпинского государства

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Оказывается, еще в 2012 г. в Нанкине начались реставрационные работы для восстановления и консервации обнаруженных еще в 1952 г. тайпинских фресок:



The renovation for the ancient architectural complex of palaces dating back to the Taiping Rebellion period (1851-1864), the largest peasant uprising in China's history, at No 108 in Tangzi Street of Nanjing was recently kicked off.

The renovated site will be designed into a mural art museum which houses murals of the Taiping Rebellion period. The museum is scheduled to be open to public in the first half of 2013.

The 100-plus remaining murals of the Taiping Rebellion period across the country are of high archaeological and art values comparable to the Dunhuang murals. Among the 30 murals in Nanjing, 18 are collected in the courtyards at No 108 in Tangzi Street.

This group of murals, hailed as the most ancient, most complete and most influential one of the Taiping Rebellion period, was found in 1952 and listed as an important cultural relic site under state-level protection in Jan of 1988.

Murals of Taiping Rebellion period can be divided into 4 categories. One features various fierce beasts and was mostly painted on gates of mansions, residence and palaces or walls of law courts. Another category describes the scenes of labor. The third category reproduces the military struggles during the Taiping Rebellion period. And the fourth depicts mountains, waters, flowers and birds, or auspicious animals such as dragons and phoenixes, which constitutes a major part of murals in that period.


К сожалению, в заметке привели только 2 небольших фрагмента из более чем 100 обнаруженных росписей. Картинки маленькие и плохого качества, тем не менее, они есть.



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Вот еще об этих же фресках:




May 24, 2016

Written by Han Dou

Published in Nanjing News

Tangzijie, a place notorious for selling second-hand (stolen) bikes in Nanjing has a chance to clear its name. After half a century of preservation, 24 original murals from the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Era (1850-1864) were unveiled on Tangzijie last Wednesday.

These colourful wall paintings were rediscovered on the walls of 108 Tangzijie in 1952, and were later confirmed by historians to be artworks from the short-lived rebellion state; “Heavenly Kingdom of Peace” (太平天国).

In 1850, a Chinese Christian convert, Hong Xiuquan, who believed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ proclaimed himself leader of a new dynasty, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, declaring Nanjing the Heavenly Capital. 

He and his followers marched against the ruling Qing dynasty, gathering huge support as they went. The ensuing civil war lasted fourteen years; around twenty million people lost their lives in what was thought to be one of the bloodiest civil wars in human history and the largest conflict of the nineteenth century. Historians believe it shaped modern China in the same way as the First World War shaped modern Europe.

However, when the rebellion failed in 1864, most objects of art were destroyed by Qing soldiers. Only a few survive today, with half of them being sent overseas and only a hundred or so remaining within the nation, the majority in Nanjing. 

“Had it not been for the ashes that covered them, we might never see these national treasures”, said Zhang Tiebao, a longtime researcher on Taiping Heavenly Kingdom history before recounting an amusing story of a former houseguest who suspected the red colours on the murals were blood and was paranoid to the extent that he covered everything with limestone ash, which unintentionally protected the murals from complete deterioration.

24 meticulously painted murals went on display last week in the 4,100 square metre exhibition space, along with other artefacts, such as brick sculptures, woodcarvings and screens from the Heavenly Kingdom era. One of the major highlights is an intricately detailed wall painting of the war between Taiping rebellion soldiers and those of the Qing army along the Yangtze River. 

All the cultural commingling on view shows the unique art style of that time; a mixture of exquisiteness from works by men-of-letters and the earthiness of folk art. Visitors also will see an ancient Chinese version of Heaven on the wall, which is made up of cranes resting peacefully under peach trees with pavilions in the background. Interestingly, no human figures were presented in these murals because of Hong’s strict Christian doctrine of no idol worship. 

“Wall paintings were extremely popular during that time”, said Zhang, pointing out that most of the so-called Heavenly Kings came from a farmer background and grew up with ancestral temple murals in the countryside. In the Kingdom’s prime, almost all houses were painted and Hong even set up a specialised bureau in charge of mural paintings on what is today Hongwu Lu. 

The house on Tangzijie was listed as a national cultural heritage protection unit in 1988 but it has taken 64 years for the murals inside it to be readied for public exhibition. Their preservation  in southern China is extremely complex because of the damp climate which can cause the murals to peel or become mouldy. Historians in Nanjing have tried various ways to repair them but the process proceeded very slowly. Now, with the help of professionals from the Shanxi Archeological institute, the treasures finally faced their public this year on 18th May, International Museum Day, continuing to capture the nation’s imagination. 

Entrance is free until the end of this month with ID card. Find the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Mural Arts Center Gallery (太平天国壁画艺术馆) at 108 Tangzijie (堂子街108号). Opening times are 8.30am until 4.30pm.


И прилагается довольно большое фото, но фрески видны слабо:


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Для поиска фресок в Интернете - музей называется 太平天国壁画艺术馆 и располагается по адресу 南京, 堂子街108号.

Попробуем найти наиболее интересные фрагменты от тайпинских фресок (太平天國 壁畫).

Вот некоторые из них:












Издано 2 тома с фресками и исследованиями - основной том:


и дополнительный том:


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Интересная первая фреска с изображением воина в характерном для ушу прыжке. Положение пальцев рук позволяет отнести к какому-то северному стилю, вероятно из семьи шаолинь-пай.

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В 12.02.2017в11:11, Неметон сказал:

Положение пальцев рук позволяет отнести к какому-то северному стилю, вероятно из семьи шаолинь-пай.

Не могу судить о реалистичности изображения в целом. Есть прекрасная серия фресок, сохранившихся в Шаолиньском монастыре и датируемая началом-серединой первой трети XIX века. Разве что по ним сравнивать.


Гораздо интереснее, на мой взгляд, обнаружение тайпинских фресок как таковых.



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А еще более интересно, наверное, обнаружение артефактов тех лет - по определению, они не могут быть многочисленными.

К таковым относятся монеты. Например, вот такой краткий обзор тайпинских монет, литых из медных сплавов:

Peace Coins of the Taiping Rebellion

The characters for peace were also used on the "unofficial" coinage of a large-scale peasant uprising (1850 -1864 AD) during the Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty referred to as the Taiping Rebellion.  Hong Xiu Quan (洪秀全) established the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace (太 平天国).  Until the rebellion was put down, Hong Xiu Quan and his rebel army controlled a good portion of southern China with a population of about 30 million.  His troops were called "holy troops" and his coins were called "holy coins".
                rebel coin with peace (Tai Ping) and Heavenly Kingdom
                (Tian Guo)  
The coin at the left is an example of this rebel coinage.  The obverse side has the characters for Tai Ping (peace) above and below the square hole with the characters Tian Guo (天国), meaning "heavenly kingdom", to the right and left.

Reverse side of old Chinese coin with "holy
                coin" (shengbao)


The reverse side of the coin has the characters shengbao (圣宝), meaning "holy coin", on the right and left.
This coin has a diameter of 24.6 mm and weighs 3.3 grams.

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К сожалению, бОльшая часть тайпинских монет на нумизматическом рынке - подделка. Но вот такую интересную историю поведал Гэри Ашкенази, сославшись на статью в газете "Чутянь душибао" от 5 мая 2011 г.:

Taiping Rebellion Coins Saved from Furnace

Taiping Rebellion Iron Coin

Taiping Rebellion Iron Coin

A recent Chinese newspaper article describes how some valuable coins from a popular peasant uprising at the end of the Qing Dynasty were saved from being used as scrap iron for a backyard furnace during the Great Leap Forward campaign of 1958-1961.

The article entitled “Grandfather Saved Iron Coins from the Taiping Rebellion” was published in the May 5, 2011 edition of the “Chutian City News” (楚天都市报).

During the Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong encouraged every commune and urban neighborhood to establish backyard steel furnaces in order to accelerate China’s economic development.

Since the village discussed in the article did not have the necessary iron ore to feed the furnace, every household was required to provide a specific quantity of “scrap iron”.

But the villagers also did not have “scrap iron” so they were forced to provide perfectly good iron utensils and tools in order to meet the requirement.

The “grandfather”, who happened to be one of the technicians in charge of the local furnace, discovered that someone had provided a string of 10-20 iron coins from the Taiping Rebellion as “scrap iron” for the furnace.  He felt that it would be “a waste” to destroy the coins so he secretly hid them in his pocket and took them home.

Over the years, the coins were gradually passed down to various family members.

The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) was a civil war which began in southern China.  The leader Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全), who was convinced that he was the younger brother of Jesus, declared himself to be the “Heavenly King” (tian wang 天王) of “The Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” (taiping tianguo 太平天国).

The rebellion would eventually spread through 15 provinces and include 30 million people before it was put down by government troops aided by French and British forces.

Reverse side of Taiping Rebellion Iron Coin

Reverse side of Taiping Rebellion Iron Coin

Most Taiping Rebellion coins were cast in bronze with only a very small number made in iron or lead.  Gold and silver coins also exist but are extremely rare.

The coins have some interesting characteristics.  For example, none of the coins bear a denomination.  Also, the character guo (国) in the inscription, which means “kingdom”, is written with a wang (王) character inside the “square box” (kou 口) instead of the standard yu (玉) character.

The inscriptions on the coins can also vary.  Obverse inscriptions include tian guo (天国), taiping tianguo (太平天国) and tianguo shengbao (天国聖寶).  Reverse inscriptions can include shengbao (聖寶) and taiping (太平).

The iron coin shown in the article and displayed here has the obverse inscription “Heavenly Kingdom” (tianguo 天国) and the reverse inscription “Holy Coin” (shengbao 聖寶).

The coins have a diameter of 35 mm and weigh about 16.3 grams.

The Great Leap Forward proved to be an economic disaster for China with the “backyard furnaces” being just one example.  Labor was diverted from the fields, the wood needed for the furnaces came from the doors and furniture of the peasants, the needed “scrap metal” consisted of perfectly good pots and pans, and the resulting pig iron was of such poor quality as to be useless.

От себя добавлю, что интересно даже то, что тайпины применяли упрощенный иероглиф "государство" 国 на своих монетах - такой вид он официально принял только после реформ, проведенных в 1950-х годах. До этого во всех официальных документах и т.п. он имел вид 國.

Тайпины же пошли в упрощении иероглифа еще дальше, если верить Ашкенази, и вместо юй (玉 - яшма) в центре квадрата поместили ван (王 - государь). Но состояние металла на приведенной на фотографии монете таково, что я, например, не могу быть уверен, что там именно "ван", а не "юй".


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